(1/894) Mepyramine inhibits platelet activating factor-induced rabbit platelet aggregation: role of intracellular histamine.

AIM: To study the possible role of intracellular histamine (HA) in platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced platelet activation. METHODS: Washed rabbit platelet suspension was used to test the inhibitory effect of mepyramine (Mep, an H1 receptor antagonist) on PAF-induced platelet aggregation. The thromboxane B2 (TXB2) generation was measured by radioimmunoassay and the intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) concentration was determined by the specific fluorescence indicator Fura-2. RESULTS: Mep > 100 mumol.L-1 generated a concentration-dependent inhibition on PAF-induced aggregation, with an IC50 value of 162 (95% confidence limits: 114-232 mumol.L-1). Cimetidine, an H2 receptor antagonist, even up to 400 mumol.L-1 had no effect on it. Exogenous HA (10 mumol.L-1) and H1 receptor agonist, 2-thiazolylethylamine had no energetic effect. alpha-Fluoromethylhistidine, an inhibitor of histidine decarboxylase, did not inhibit platelet responses. However, in platelets permeabilized with saponin (8-10 mg.L-1), exogenous HA attenuated the inhibitory effect of Mep to about 50% at a concentration of 50 mumol.L-1. Preincubation of platelets with Mep (100 or 200 mumol.L-1) resulted in an inhibition on TXB2 generation and [Ca2+]i elevation induced by PAF. CONCLUSION: Platelets activated by PAF is associated with an intracellular HA synthesis and release via a common pathway of TXB2 generation and the rise of [Ca2+]i.  (+info)

(2/894) Considerations in pharmaceutical conversion: focus on antihistamines.

The practice of pharmaceutical conversion, which encompasses three types of drug interchange (generic, brand, and therapeutic substitution), is increasing in managed care settings. Pharmaceutical conversion has numerous implications for managed care organizations, their healthcare providers, and their customers. Although drug cost may be a driving consideration in pharmaceutical conversion, a number of other considerations are of equal or greater importance in the decision-making process may affect the overall cost of patient care. Among these considerations are clinical, psychosocial, and safety issues; patient adherence; patient satisfaction; and legal implications of pharmaceutical conversion. Patient-centered care must always remain central to decisions about pharmaceutical conversion. This article discusses the issues related to, and implications of, pharmaceutical conversion utilizing the antihistamines class of drugs as the case situation.  (+info)

(3/894) Treatment of allergic rhinitis: an evidence-based evaluation of nasal corticosteroids versus nonsedating antihistamines.

Allergic rhinitis is a high-cost, high-prevalence disease. In the 12 months ending March 31, 1997 $3.1 billion was spent in the United States for medications to manage this illness. Allergic rhinitis affects quality of life and interferes with work productivity. Nonsedating antihistamines are the most common and most expensive therapy for this condition. This study reviewed 13 randomized studies in which blinded investigators compared management of allergic rhinitis by means of intranasal steroids to management by means of nonsedating antihistamine. Evidence tables demonstrated that in all studies in which total nasal symptoms and nasal obstruction were recorded, the nasal steroid was statistically superior to the nonsedating antihistamine. For nasal blockage the nonsedating antihistamines did not perform better than placebo. For all other nasal symptoms the intranasal steroid was statistically superior in most reports and equal or numerically better in the remaining papers. When these data are linked to those from cost analysis and quality-of-life studies, the evidence strongly suggests that nasal steroids should be first-line therapy for allergic rhinitis. In four reports on the combination of a nonsedating antihistamine compared to a nasal steroid alone, there was no significant difference between these two treatments. Like asthma, allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory disease and should be managed with anti-inflammatory medication. Making such a change in the management of allergic rhinitis should increase efficacy and decrease costs.  (+info)

(4/894) Rate-dependent blockade of a potassium current in human atrium by the antihistamine loratadine.

The antihistamine loratadine is widely prescribed for the treatment of symptoms associated with allergies. Although generally believed to be free of adverse cardiac effects, there are a number of recent reports suggesting that loratadine use may be associated with arrhythmias, in particular atrial arrhythmias. Nothing is known regarding the potassium channel blocking properties of loratadine in human cardiac cells. Using the whole-cell patch clamp technique, the effects of loratadine on the transient outward K current (Ito), sustained current (Isus), and current measured at -100 mV (IK1 and Ins), the major inward and outward potassium currents present in human atrial myocytes, were examined in order to provide a possible molecular mechanism for the observed atrial arrhythmias reported with loratadine use. Loratadine rate-dependently inhibited Ito at therapeutic concentrations with 10 nM loratadine reducing Ito amplitude at a pacing rate of 2 Hz by 34.9+/-6.0%. In contrast, loratadine had no effect on either Isus or current measured at -100 mV. These results may provide a possible mechanism for the incidences of supraventricular arrhythmias reported with the use of loratadine.  (+info)

(5/894) Risk of ventricular arrhythmias associated with nonsedating antihistamine drugs.

AIMS: To quantify and compare the incidence of ventricular arrhythniias associated with the use of five nonsedating antihistamines: acrivastine, astemizole, cetirizine, loratadine and terfenadine. The effects of age, sex, dose, duration of treatment, and the interaction with P450 inhibitor drugs were also examined. METHODS: We carried out a cohort study with a nested case-control analysis using the UK-based General Practice Research database (GPRD). The study cohort included persons aged less than 80 years old who received their first prescription for any of the five study drugs between January 1, 1992 and September 30, 1996. We estimated relative risks and 95% confidence intervals of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias with current use of antihistamines as compared with non use. RESULTS: The study cohort included 197425 persons who received 513012 prescriptions. Over the study period 18 valid cases of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias were detected. Nine occurred during the current use of any antihistamine, resulting in a crude incidence of 1.9 per 10000 person-years (95%CI: 1.0-3.6) and a relative risk of 4.2 (95%CI: 1.5-11.8) as compared with non use. Astemizole presented the highest relative risk (RR= 19.0; 95%CI: 4.8-76.0) of all study drugs, while terfenadine (RR=2.1; 95%CI:0.5-8.5) was in the range of other nonsedating antihistamines. Older age was associated with a greater risk of ventricular arrhythmias (RR=7.4; 95%CI: 2.6-21.4) and seemed to increase the effect of antihistamines (RR=6.4; 95%CI: 1.7-24.8). The proportions of high dose terfenadine and the concomitant use with P450 inhibitors among current users of terfenadine were 2.7% and 3.4%, respectively over the study period with no single case of ventricular arrhythmias occurring in the presence of these two risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: The use of nonsedating antihistamines increases the risk of ventricular arrhythmias by a factor of four in the general population. Yet, the absolute effect is quite low requiring 57000 prescriptions, or 5300 person-years of use for one case to occur. The risk associated with terfenadine was no different from that with other nonsedating antihistamines.  (+info)

(6/894) Study of cardiac repolarization in healthy volunteers performed with mizolastine, a new H1-receptor antagonist.

AIMS: The occurrence of serious dysrhythmias, such as torsades de pointes, with terfenadine and astemizole had led to a reexamination of the potential effect of H1 antihistamines on cardiac repolarization. Mizolastine is a potent, selective, nonsedating peripherally acting H1-receptor antagonist which is registered for rhinitis and urticaria at a recommended dose of 10 mg once daily. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses of mizolastine, on ventricular repolarization in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy young volunteers participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised study with three parallel groups. Each group consisted of 2 way cross-over 7 day treatment periods where mizolastine (10, 20 or 40 mg) and placebo were randomly administered. On day 1 and day 7, 12-lead ECG recordings were performed prior and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, and 20 h after dosing and from day 2 to day 6, before dosing and 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after. RESULTS: Whatever the analysis used (raw data, changes from baseline, incidence of individual out-of-range values) no significant differences were observed at any dose level vs placebo, on any of ECG parameters (HR, PR, QRS, QT, and QTc). In particular, no effect of mizolastine vs placebo was shown on QT and QTc although 95% CIs were wide. The only subject who exhibited a QTc>/=450 ms received placebo for 7 days. CONCLUSIONS: This study found no evidence of an effect of mizolastine up to 40 mg (four times the therapeutic dose) on ventricular repolarization in healthy volunteers.  (+info)

(7/894) Alcohol-histamine interactions.

Alcohol and histamine metabolic pathways in the body have the common enzymes aldehyde dehydrogenase and aldehyde oxidase. The metabolite of ethanol, acetaldehyde, can effectively compete with the metabolites of histamine, methylimidazole acetaldehyde, and imidazole acetaldehyde. At the periphery, alcohol and acetaldehyde liberate histamine from its store in mast cells and depress histamine elimination by inhibiting diamine oxidase, resulting in elevated histamine levels in tissues. Histamine mediates alcohol-induced gastric and intestinal damage and bronchial asthma as well as flushing in Orientals. On the other hand, alcohol provokes food-induced histaminosis and histamine intolerance, which is an epidemiological problem. There are many controversial reports concerning the effect of H2 receptor antagonists on ethanol metabolism and the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase in the stomach. In addition, alcohol affects histamine levels in the brain by modulating histamine synthesis, release, and turnover. Histamine receptor antagonists can affect ethanol metabolism and change the sensitivity of animals to the hypnotic effects of alcohol. In contrast to other neurotransmitters, the involvement of the brain histamine system in the mechanisms of the central actions of alcohol and in the pathogenesis of alcoholism is poorly studied and understood.  (+info)

(8/894) Sequential randomised and double blind trial of promethazine prophylaxis against early anaphylactic reactions to antivenom for bothrops snake bites.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of the H1 antihistamine promethazine against early anaphylactic reactions to antivenom. DESIGN: Sequential randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. SETTING: Public hospital in a venom research institute, Sao Paulo, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 101 patients requiring antivenom treatment after being bitten by bothrops snakes. INTERVENTION: Intramuscular injection of promethazine (25 mg for adults and 0.5/kg for children) or placebo given 15-20 min before starting intravenous infusion of antivenom. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence and severity of anaphylactic reactions occurring within 24 hours after antivenom. RESULTS: Reactions occurred in 12 of 49 patients treated with promethazine (24%) and in 13 of 52 given placebo (25%); most were mild or moderate. Continuous sequential analysis indicated that the study could be interrupted at the 22nd untied pair, without preference for promethazine or placebo. CONCLUSION: Prophylaxis with promethazine does not prevent early reactions. Patients should be observed carefully during antivenom infusion and the subsequent few hours.  (+info)