Estimation of the dermal absorption of m-xylene vapor in humans using breath sampling and physiologically based pharmacokinetic analysis.
A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model, containing a skin compartment, was derived and used to simulate experimentally determined exposure to m-xylene, using human volunteers exposed under controlled conditions. Biological monitoring was conducted by sampling, in exhaled alveolar air and blood, m-xylene and urinary methyl hippuric acid concentrations. The dermal absorption of m-xylene vapor was successfully and conveniently studied using a breath sampling technique, and the contribution to m-xylene body burden from the dermal route of exposure was estimated to be 1.8%. The model was used to investigate the protection afforded by an air-fed, half-face mask. By iteratively changing the dermal exposure concentration, it was possible to predict the ambient concentration that was required to deliver the observed urinary excretion of methylhippuric acid, during and following inhalation exposure to 50 ppm m-xylene vapor. This latter extrapolation demonstrates how physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling can be applied in a practical and occupationally relevant way, and permitted a further step not possible with biological monitoring alone. The ability of the model to extrapolate an ambient exposure concentration was dependent upon human metabolism data, thereby demonstrating the mechanistic toxicological basis of model output. The methyl hydroxylation of m-xylene is catalyzed by the hepatic mixed function oxidase enzyme, cytochrome P450 2E1 and is active in the occupationally relevant, (<100 ppm) exposure range of m-xylene. The use of a scaled-up in vitro maximum rate of metabolism (Vmaxc) in the model also demonstrates the increasingly valuable potential utility of biokinetic data determined using alternative, non-animal methods in human chemical-risk assessment. (+info)
Toxicokinetic interactions between orally ingested chlorzoxazone and inhaled acetone or toluene in male volunteers.
The aim of this study was to examine if the drug chlorzoxazone has any influence on the toxicokinetics of acetone and toluene. Chlorzoxazone is mainly metabolized by the same enzyme (Cytochrome P450 2E1) as ethanol and many other organic solvents. Ten male volunteers were exposed to solvent vapor (2 h, 50 watt) in an exposure chamber. Each subject was exposed to acetone only (250 ppm), acetone + chlorzoxazone, toluene (50 ppm) only, toluene + chlorzoxazone, and chlorzoxazone only. Chlorzoxazone (500 mg) was taken as two tablets 1 h prior to solvent exposure. Samples of blood, urine and exhaled air were collected before, during and until 20 h post exposure. The samples were analyzed by head-space gas chromatography (acetone and toluene) and high-performance liquid chromatography (chlorzoxazone, 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone and hippuric acid). The time-concentration curves of acetone and toluene in blood were fitted to one- and four-compartment toxicokinetic models, respectively. Intake of chlorzoxazone was associated with slight but significant increases in the area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC) and steady state concentration of acetone in blood, along with non significant tendencies to an increased half time in blood and an increased AUC in urine. Except for a delayed excretion of hippuric acid in urine, no effects on the toluene toxicokinetics were seen after chlorzoxazone treatment. Small increases in chlorzoxazone plasma levels were seen after exposure compared to chlorzoxazone alone. These interactions, although statistically significant, seem to be small compared to the interindividual variability on metabolism and toxicokinetics. (+info)
Intradialytic removal of protein-bound uraemic toxins: role of solute characteristics and of dialyser membrane.
BACKGROUND: The efficiency of dialysis membranes is generally evaluated by assessing their capacity to remove small, water-soluble and non-protein-bound reference markers such as urea or creatinine. However, recent data suggest that protein-bound and/or lipophilic substances might be responsible for biochemical alterations characterizing the uraemic syndrome. METHODS: In the present study, the total concentrations of four uraemic retention compounds (indoxyl sulphate, hippuric acid, 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionic acid (CMPF) and p-cresol) and of tryptophan, the only protein-bound amino acid and a precursor of indoxyl sulphate, were compared with those of urea and creatinine in pre- and post-dialysis serum and in dialysate of 10 patients; two high-flux (HF) membranes (cellulose triacetate (CTA) and polysulphone (PS)) and a low-flux polysulphone (LFPS) membrane were compared in a crossover design, using HPLC. RESULTS: Except for hippuric acid (67.3+/-17.5% decrease), major differences were found in the percentage removal of the classical uraemic markers on one hand (creatinine 66.6+/-7.0% and urea 75.5+/-5.8% decrease) and the studied protein-bound and/or lipophilic substances on the other (indoxyl sulphate, 35.4+/-15.3% and p-cresol 29.0+/-14.2% decrease; tryptophan, 27.5+/-40.3%, and CMPF, 22.4+/-17.5% increase; P<0.01 vs urea and creatinine in all cases). Hippuric acid removal was more pronounced than that of the remaining protein-bound compounds (P<0. 01). After correction for haemoconcentration, per cent increase of tryptophan and CMPF was less substantial, while per cent negative changes for the remaining compounds became more important. There was a correlation between creatinine and urea per cent removal at min 240 (r=0.51, P<0.01), but all the other compounds showed no significant correlation with either of these two. The three membranes were similar regarding the changes of total solute concentrations from the start to the end of dialysis. CONCLUSIONS: Urea and creatinine are far more efficiently removed than the other compounds under study, except for hippuric acid. There are no striking differences between the HF membranes. Moreover, compared with the LF membrane these HF membranes do not appear to be superior in removing the studied compounds. (+info)
Rapid hippurate hydrolysis method for presumptive identification of group B streptococci.
A rapid test to detect the hydrolysis of sodium hippurate by beta-hemolytic streptococci within 2 h was developed. All group B streptococci tested were positive using this method and all other groups were negative. (+info)
Standardization and evaluation of the CAMP reaction for the prompt, presumptive identification of Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B) in clinical material.
Primary cultures of clinical material were screened for the presence of colonies suspected of being Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B). Sixty-three such cultures and 108 other isolates of beta-hemolytic streptococci (groups A, C, and G), encountered during the first 3 months of the investigation, were studied by Lancefield grouping, sodium hippurate hydrolysis, and a standardized CAMP test. All streptococci were inoculated perpendicularly to streaks of a beta-toxin-producing staphylococcus on sheep blood agar plates and incubated aerobically in a candle jar and anaerobically at 37 C. Plates were examined after 5 to 6 and 18 h of incubation. The production of a distinct "arrowhead" of hemolysis was indicative of a positive CAMP reaction. All group B streptococci produced a positive CAMP reaction in the candle jar or anaerobically, usually within 5 to 6 h, and aerobically after 18 h of incubation. All group A streptococci produced a positive reaction only under anaerobic conditions. Groups C and G streptococci were negative under all atmospheres. The CAMP reaction is a prompt and reliable procedure for the presumptive identification of group B streptococci when a candle jar atmosphere is used during incubation. (+info)
Effect of repeated exposure to methanol and toluene vapor on the metabolism of rats.
Wistar male rats were repeatedly exposed to methanol and toluene vapors individually and simultaneously by inhalation 6 hours a day, five days a week for 4 weeks. Blood was obtained from the tail of the rats up to 23 hours after the end of 4-week exposure and the methanol and toluene concentrations were measured. Major metabolites of methanol and toluene, that is, formic acid and hippuric acid in urine were measured up to 6 days after the end of 4-week exposure. The biological half time of toluene in blood in the simultaneous exposure group was shorter than that in the toluene exposure group. This tendency was almost the same as that for one-day exposure, although the biological half time of solvents in the rat blood was prolonged. The half times of methanol were also longer than those for one-day exposure. (+info)
Cholic acid accumulation by the ciliary body and by the iris of the primate eye.
Cholic acid accumulates in both the ciliary body and the iris of the primate eye during in vitro incubations at 37 degrees C for 1 hr. Incubation at 0 degrees C depresses uptake in both tissues. The washout of preaccumulated cholic acid occurs some 3.4 times faster from the iris than from the ciliary body. The mechanism of cholic acid accumulation in both tissues is less sensitive to inhibition by high iodipamide concentrations and also is less sensitive to inhibition by high hippurate concentrations than the mechanism of p-aminohippurate (PAH) accumulation. Therefore, although overlap may exist, the cholic acid--uptake mechanism differs from the PAH-uptake mechanism in both the primate ciliary body and the primate iris. (+info)
Uricosuric agents in uremic sera. Identification of indoxyl sulfata and hippuric acid.
Serum and urine from chronically uremic patients and normal individuals were subjected to gel filtration of Sephadex-G10. The effects of the eluted fractions on the uptake of urate and para-aminohippurate by isolated cortical tubules of rabbit kidney were investigated. According to the origin of the samples, one to three major groups of fractions inhibiting both urate and para-aminohippurate transport were disclosed. The first eluted group occurred for all the samples under study. The second one was demonstrated in both sera and urines from uremic patients but only in urines from normal individuals. The third one was exclusively detected in uremic sera and urines. Among all the compounds identified, only hippuric acid, eluted in the fractions of the second group, was capable of inhibiting the uptake of urate and para-aminohippurate in vitro. The concentration for which this inhbiitory effect of hippuric acid occurred was in the range of that existing in uremic sera. Indoxyl sulfate, which accumulates to very high concentrations in uremic serum, could not be disclosed in the above-mentioned fractions. This is explained by the strong adsorption of this indole derivative to Sephadex gel. Potassium indoxyl sulfate, when tested in vitro at the concentration existing in uremic serum, substantially inhibited the uptake of both urate and para-aminohippurate. In normal subjects, ingestion of hippuric acid or potassium indoxyl sulfate significantly increased fractional urinary excretion of uric acid. On the basis of these results, it is suggested that progressive retention of hippuric acid, indoxyl sulfate, and other yet unidentified inhibitors may explain the gradual increase in urinary fractional excretion of urate observed in uremia. The present results may be viewed as an example of a mechanism in which retention of normally excreted end products is responsible for adaptation of tubular transport in uremic subjects. (+info)