Common peroneal nerve palsy: a clinical and electrophysiological review.
In a series of 70 patients (75 cases of common peroneal nerve palsy) the common causes were trauma about the knee or about the hip, compression, and underlying neuropathy. A few palsies occurred spontaneously for no apparent reason. The prognosis was uniformly good in the compression group; recovery was delayed but usually satisfactory in patients who had suffered stretch injuries. In the acute stage, when clinical paralysis appears to be complete, electrophysiological studies are a useful guide to prognosis. They may also indicate an underlying neuropathy and they detect early evidence of recovery. The anatomical peculiarities of the common peroneal nerve are noted and aspects of the clinical picture, management, and prognosis of palsy are discussed. (+info)
Spontaneous or traumatic premature closure of the tibial tubercle.
A premature closure of the physis of the tibial tubercle in a young man has given rise to a shortening of the tibia, a patella alta and a reversed tibial slope of 20 degrees with clinical genu recurvatum. After a proximal open wedge tibial osteotomy all three postural deformities could be restored. The etiology of this complex deformity is discussed. (+info)
Osteoarthritis and risk of falls, rates of bone loss, and osteoporotic fractures. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between osteoarthritis (OA), as defined by radiographic evidence and self report, and osteoporotic fractures, falls, and bone loss in a cohort of elderly white women. METHODS: A cohort of 5,552 elderly women from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures was followed up prospectively for a mean of 7.4 years. Self-reported, physician-diagnosed OA was recorded at interview, and radiologic OA of the hip and hand were defined from pelvis and hand radiographs obtained at baseline by validated techniques. Prevalent and incident vertebral fractures were detected by vertebral morphometry, and data on incident fractures and falls were collected by postcard surveys; fractures were confirmed by radiography. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured on 2 occasions at the hip, lumbar spine, and calcaneus, and rates of bone loss were calculated. RESULTS: Women with radiographic hip OA had a reduced risk of recurrent falls in the first year (relative risk [RR] 0.7, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.5-0.95). However, those with self-reported OA had an increased risk of falls (RR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.5). Radiographic hip OA was associated with reduced bone loss in the femoral neck compared with controls (mean +/- SD -0.29+/-0.09%/year versus -0.51+/-0.03%/year; P = 0.018). However, radiographic hip OA showed nonsignificant trends toward increased bone loss at the calcaneus and lumbar spine. There was no significant association between self-reported OA or radiographic hand OA with bone loss. No definition of OA was associated with incident nonvertebral fracture, hip fracture, or vertebral fracture. CONCLUSION: Despite having increased BMD compared with controls, subjects with OA did not have a significantly reduced risk of osteoporotic fracture, although there was a trend toward a reduced risk of femoral neck fractures in subjects with severe radiographic OA. The failure of the observed increase in BMD to translate into a reduced fracture risk may be due, in part, to the number and type of falls sustained by subjects with OA. Patients with OA should not be considered to be at a lower risk of fracture than the general population. Physicians should be aware that a high BMD in patients with OA may be falsely reassuring. (+info)
Comparison of quantitative ultrasound in the human calcaneus with mechanical failure loads of the hip and spine.
OBJECTIVE: Quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus is used clinically for evaluating bone fracture risk, but its association with the mechanical properties at other skeletal sites is not well characterized. The objective was therefore to determine its predictive ability of the mechanical failure loads of the proximal femur and lumbar spine. METHOD: In 45 human cadavers (29 males and 16 females, aged 82.5 +/- 9.6 years), we determined the speed of sound, broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) and the empirical stiffness index, using a commercial quantitative ultrasound scanner. The proximal femora and the fourth vertebral body were excised and loaded to failure in a testing machine. RESULTS: Femoral failure loads ranged from 933 to 7000 N and those of the vertebrae from 1000 to 7867 N, their correlation being 0.51 in females and -0.08 in males. Forty percent of the variability of femoral, but only 24% of the variability of the vertebral fracture loads could be predicted with calcaneal speed of sound. In the femur, a combination of speed of sound and BUA improved the prediction (r2 = 50-60%), but not in the spine. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides experimental evidence that calcaneal quantitative ultrasound is capable of predicting mechanical failure at other skeletal sites and has potential to identify patients at risk from osteoporotic fracture. The different association of quantitative ultrasound with femoral and vertebral failure may result from the influence of the cortical bone and a higher microstructure-related similarity of the calcaneus and the femur. (+info)
Factors associated with osteoarthritis of the hip and knee in Hong Kong Chinese: obesity, joint injury, and occupational activities.
In 1998, a case-control study was conducted in Hong Kong on hospital patients with osteoarthritis of the hip (n = 138) and osteoarthritis of the knee (n = 658). Age- and sex-matched controls were recruited consecutively from general practice clinics in the same region. The following three risk factors were found to be associated with osteoarthritis of both the hip and the knee: first, a history of joint injury: for osteoarthritis of the hip, the odds ratio = 25.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.5, 181) in men and 43.3 (95% CI: 11.7, 161) in women; for osteoarthritis of the knee, the odds ratio = 12.1 (95% CI: 3.4, 42.5) in men and 7.6 (95% CI: 3.8, 15.2) in women; second, climbing stairs frequently: for osteoarthritis of the hip, the odds ratio = 12.5 (95% CI: 1.5, 104.3) in men and 2.3 (95% CI: 0.6, 8.1) in women; for osteoarthritis of the knee, the odds ratio = 2.5 (95% CI: 1.0, 6.4) in men and 5.1 (95% CI: 2.5, 10.2) in women; third, lifting heavy weight frequently: for osteoarthritis of the hip, the odds ratio = 3.1 (95% CI: 0.7, 14.3) in men and 2.4 (95% CI: 1.1, 5.3) in women; for osteoarthritis of the knee, the odds ratio = 5.4 (95% CI: 2.4, 12.4) in men and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.2, 3.1) in women. In addition, subjects whose height and weight were in the highest quartile were at increased risk of osteoarthritis of the hip and knee, respectively (p < 0.05). (+info)
Arterial injury and massive blood loss: a case report of management of pelvic gunshot injury with femoro-subscrotal-femoral bypass and 116 units of blood.
A case of massive shotgun injury to the left thigh and hip is reported. The patient received 116 units of blood, and a femoro-subscrotal-femoral vein graft was employed to save the left leg. A Teflon wool blood transfusion filter, used from the beginning of therapy, was believed to have been a major factor in preventing significant pulmonary complications. (+info)
The incidence and pattern of knee injury associated with dislocation of the hip.
A retrospective survey of 135 posterior dislocations and fracture-dislocations of the hip was carried out in order to define the pattern of associated knee injuries. Thirty-five patients had sustained a significant injury to the knee, of which twenty-five were clearly attributable to a direct blow on the front of the knee (fractured patella, traumatic chondromalacia, fractures of femoral and tibial condyles) and ten were compatible with valgus, varus or rotational forces (medial, lateral and cruciate ligament tears). The second type of injury has not been widely recognised but it is important that it should not be overlooked. (+info)
Late open reduction of traumatic dislocation of the hip. Report of three cases.
Three patients were reviewed seven, eight and fourteen years after delayed open reduction of traumatic posterior dislocation of the hip. The delay between injury and operation varied from twenty-eight to ninety-three days. At the time of review symptoms were minimal or absent, and in all cases the injured hip was clinically normal. Radiological examination showed loss of articular cartilage in one hip and trabecular changes in the bone of all three. On the basis of these three results the traditional pessimism about prognosis in such cases may not be justified. (+info)