Site-specific variation in femoral head cartilage composition in dogs at high and low risk for development of osteoarthritis: insights into cartilage degeneration.
OBJECTIVE: To determine which characteristics of cartilage lesion pathology are detected in dogs at high risk to develop osteoarthritis prior to diagnosis by standard radiographs or macroscopic cartilage abnormality on necropsy. METHODS: Fourteen disease-free dogs were assigned to risk groups based on hip distraction index. For seven dogs, three dimensional images of hip joints from computed tomography were available. At necropsy, ligamentum capitis femoris volumes were measured and articular cartilage was harvested and analyzed for percent water, swelling, glycosaminoglycan, and fibronectin. Comparisons were made with nine dogs with macroscopic cartilage lesions (OA group). RESULTS: Ligament volumes were greater in the high distraction index group (P=0.000). Water content was elevated in the lesion area in both low and high risk dogs (P=0.000); no additional increase was noted in the high risk group. Glycosaminoglycan content was slightly elevated in the surrounding area in both groups (P< 0.02) but loss was noted histologically in the lesion area of the high risk group. Fibronectin was increased in the lesion area and in the high risk group (P=0.000). The magnitude of this increase was greatest in the lesion area (P=0.000) in explants. Computed tomography indicated dorsal acetabular rim impingement on the lesion area in high risk dogs. CONCLUSIONS: Water content and swelling suggest matrix structure is weaker at the site of lesion predilection in all dogs regardless of risk status. Computed tomography imaging is consistent with site specific initiation of lesions by mechanical factors. (+info)
Estimates of genetic parameters for hip and elbow dysplasia in Finnish Rottweilers.
Data from 2,764 Rottweiler dogs born from 1987 to 1996 were analyzed with a Restricted Maximum Likelihood procedure using a mixed linear animal model to obtain variance component estimates for hip and elbow dysplasia. The data included 2,764 hip dysplasia and 2,278 elbow dysplasia records. Hip joints were scored as normal (0), borderline (1), slight (2), moderate (3), and severe (4, 4.5, and 5) hip dysplasia. Elbow joints were graded normal or borderline (0), slight (1), moderate (2), and severe (3) elbow dysplasia. The mean for the hip scores was 1.07 and for the elbow scores .60. Environmental effects influencing hip dysplasia were age, birth year, birth year x season interaction, and experience of the veterinarian responsible for x-raying the dog. For elbow dysplasia, statistically significant effects were age, birth year, sex of the dog, and panelist responsible for each screening. Estimates of heritability for hip and elbow dysplasia were .58 +/- .04 and .31 +/- .04, respectively, with a genetic correlation of .37 +/- .08 between the traits. Genetic improvement of almost one genetic standard deviation was observed in both traits during the 10 yr covered by the data. (+info)
Biomarkers of joint tissue metabolism in canine osteoarthritic and arthritic joint disorders.
OBJECTIVE: To explore the levels of matrix metalloprotease-3 (MMP-3), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases-1 (TIMP-1), 5D4 keratan sulfate, and two 3B3 chondroitin-sulfate epitopes in several canine osteoarthritic and inflammatory arthropathies. METHODS: Blood and synovial fluid were obtained from 103 dogs with rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACLR), osteochondritis dissecans (OCD), fragmented coronoid process (FPC), patella luxation (PL), hip dysplasia (HD) or infectious arthritis. Dogs with non-musculosceletal disorders were used as controls. The biomarkers were measured by immunoassays. RESULTS: Median levels of synovial MMP-3, TIMP-1 and molar ratios of MMP/TIMP-1 were significantly higher in the arthritis than in the control group. The release of 5D4 keratan sulfate epitope and serum 3B3 neoepitope was reduced in arthritis patients. Increases in synovial TIMP-1 in OA were less pronounced and the molar ratio of MMP-3/TIMP-1 remained far below 1.0, demonstrating a surplus of the protease inhibitor. In osteoarthritic patients median levels of synovial 5D4 keratan sulfate were up-regulated after ACLR and PL and were inversely correlated with increasing duration of lameness. Serum TIMP-1 levels were significantly reduced in the joint disorder group when compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Our observations present the TIMP-1 serum level as a potential marker for the detection of degenerative changes in cartilage and also indicate that in canine OA, the MMP-3 mediated matrix destruction is not of major importance. However MMP-3 seems to be a sensitive marker for the local inflammation in canine arthritis. (+info)
Changes of hip joint congruity after triple pelvic osteotomy in the dog with hip dysplasia.
Changes in hip joint congruity was evaluated in dogs with hip dysplasia before and after triple pelvic osteotomy by computed tomography examination in the standing position. Lateral center edge angle significantly increased, and center distance (CD) significantly decreased after surgery compared to the values before surgery, respectively. There was an inverse proportion between the postoperative period and the change in the ratio of CD. These results suggested that joint laxity was improved with time after surgery, providing evidence of the clinical usefulness of this surgery. (+info)
Genetic structure of susceptibility traits for hip dysplasia and microsatellite informativeness of an outcrossed canine pedigree.
An outcrossed canine pedigree was developed for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of hip dysplasia by breeding dysplastic Labrador retrievers to trait-free greyhounds. Measured susceptibility traits included age at onset of femoral capital chondroepiphyseal ossification (OSS), maximum hip distraction (laxity) index (DI), and the dorsolateral subluxation (DLS) score. The pedigrees consisted of 147 dogs representing four generations. For 59 dogs genotyped with 65 microsatellites, the median heterozygosity and polymorphic information content (PIC) values of the F(1) generation were 0.82 and 0.68, respectively. Seventy-seven percent of microsatellites had a PIC greater than 0.59 in the F(1)s. Ninety-six percent of alleles showed Mendelian inheritance. Based on marker informativeness, approximately 350 randomly selected markers would be required for genome-wide screening to obtain an average interval between informative markers of 10 cM. Heritability was estimated as 0.43, 0.5, and 0.61 for OSS, DI, and the DLS score, respectively. Biometric estimates of the mean (+/- variance) effective number of segregating QTLs was 1.2 (+/- 0.05), 0.8 (+/- 0.02), and 1.0 (+/- 0.03) for OSS, DI, and the DLS score, respectively. The distributions of simulated backcross trait data suggested that the loci controlling these traits acted additively and that the DI may be controlled by a major locus. When combined with previous power and quantitative genetic analyses, these estimates indicate that this pedigree is informative for QTL mapping of hip dysplasia traits. (+info)
Bilaterally asymmetric effects of quantitative trait loci (QTLs): QTLs that affect laxity in the right versus left coxofemoral (hip) joints of the dog (Canis familiaris).
In dogs hip joint laxity that can lead to degenerative joint disease (DJD) is frequent and heritable, providing a genetic model for some aspects of the human disease. We have used Portuguese water dogs (PWDs) to identify Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that regulate laxity in the hip joint. A population of 286 PWDs, each characterized by ca. 500 molecular genetic markers, was analyzed for subluxation of the hip joint as measured by the Norberg angle, a quantitative radiographic measure of laxity. A significant directed asymmetry was observed, such that greater laxity was observed in the left than the right hip. This asymmetry was not heritable. However, the average Norberg angle was highly heritable as were the Norberg angles of either the right or left hips. After correction for pedigree effects, two QTLs were identified using the metrics of the left and right hips as separate data sets. Both are on canine chromosome 1 (CFA1), separated by about 95 Mb. One QTL, associated with the SSR marker FH2524 was significant for the left, but not the right hip. The other, associated with FH2598, was significant for the right but not the left hip. For both QTLs, some extreme phenotypes were best explained by specific interactions between haplotypes. (+info)
Laxity of canine hip joint in two positions with computed tomography.
Computed tomographic (CT) examination of 20 canine hip joints was carried out in two positions, normal-standing and weight-bearing. In normal (dorsal acetabular rim angle: DARA < 15 degrees ) or slightly abnormal (DARA, 15 degrees to 20 degrees ) hip joints, the values of parameters to laxity were evaluated as more severe in the weight-bearing position. Comparisons of results using various indicators, including the center distance (CD) index, dorsolateral subluxation score, and lateral center edge angle, revealed that the CD index may be a useful marker of functional laxity in the canine hip joint under CT scanning. Further, CT scanning in the weight-bearing position was more sensitive than in the normal-standing position for the detection of laxity in hips with normal or only slightly abnormal DARA. (+info)
Total hip replacement in a dog.
An intact male German shepherd dog (4 y, body wt. 35.5 kg) was referred to the Animal Medical Center, Chonbuk National University with severe lameness, pain and gait abnormality on the right hind limb. Survey radiographs of the pelvis revealed dysplasia of the right coxofemoral joint with subluxation. The dog was surgically treated performing total hip replacement (THR) using Modular Biolox Canine Modular THR System. The dog began to bear weight and slowly returned to a normal exercise pattern 2 months after surgery. THR resulted in satisfactory clinical functions with 6 months follow up and no complications were observed. Canine modular THR could be a successful modality for the management of disabling conditions of the coxofemoral joint. (+info)