Activation and repression of p21(WAF1/CIP1) transcription by RB binding proteins.
The Cdk inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1) is a negative regulator of the cell cycle, although its expression is induced by a number of mitogens that promote cell proliferation. We have found that E2F1 and E2F3, transcription factors that activate genes required for cell cycle progression, are strong activators of the p21 promoter. In contrast, HBP1 (HMG-box protein-1), a novel retinoblastoma protein-binding protein, can repress the p21 promoter and inhibit induction of p21 expression by E2F. Both E2Fs and HBP1 regulate p21 transcription through cis-acting elements located between nucleotides -119 to +16 of the p21 promoter and the DNA binding domains of each of these proteins are required for activity. Sequences between -119 and -60 basepairs containing four Sp1 consensus elements and two noncanonical E2F binding sites are of major importance for E2F activation, although E2F1 and E2F3 differ in the extent of their ability to activate expression when this segment is deleted. The opposing effects of E2Fs and HBP1 on p21 promoter activity suggest that interplay between these factors may determine the level of p21 transcription in vivo. (+info
From head to toes: the multiple facets of Sox proteins.
Sox proteins belong to the HMG box superfamily of DNA-binding proteins and are found throughout the animal kingdom. They are involved in the regulation of such diverse developmental processes as germ layer formation, organ development and cell type specifi-cation. Hence, deletion or mutation of Sox proteins often results in developmental defects and congenital disease in humans. Sox proteins perform their function in a complex interplay with other transcription factors in a manner highly dependent on cell type and promoter context. They exhibit a remarkable crosstalk and functional redundancy among each other. (+info
Hmo1p, a high mobility group 1/2 homolog, genetically and physically interacts with the yeast FKBP12 prolyl isomerase.
The immunosuppressive drugs FK506 and rapamycin bind to the cellular protein FKBP12, and the resulting FKBP12-drug complexes inhibit signal transduction. FKBP12 is a ubiquitous, highly conserved, abundant enzyme that catalyzes a rate-limiting step in protein folding: peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerization. However, FKBP12 is dispensible for viability in both yeast and mice, and therefore does not play an essential role in protein folding. The functions of FKBP12 may involve interactions with a number of partner proteins, and a few proteins that interact with FKBP12 in the absence of FK506 or rapamycin have been identified, including the ryanodine receptor, aspartokinase, and the type II TGF-beta receptor; however, none of these are conserved from yeast to humans. To identify other targets and functions of FKBP12, we have screened for mutations that are synthetically lethal with an FKBP12 mutation in yeast. We find that mutations in HMO1, which encodes a high mobility group 1/2 homolog, are synthetically lethal with mutations in the yeast FPR1 gene encoding FKBP12. Deltahmo1 and Deltafpr1 mutants share two phenotypes: an increased rate of plasmid loss and slow growth. In addition, Hmo1p and FKBP12 physically interact in FKBP12 affinity chromatography experiments, and two-hybrid experiments suggest that FKBP12 regulates Hmo1p-Hmo1p or Hmo1p-DNA interactions. Because HMG1/2 proteins are conserved from yeast to humans, our findings suggest that FKBP12-HMG1/2 interactions could represent the first conserved function of FKBP12 other than mediating FK506 and rapamycin actions. (+info
Structural and functional characterization of the mouse Sox9 promoter: implications for campomelic dysplasia.
Mutations in SOX9 cause campomelic dysplasia (CD), a dominant skeletal dysmorphology and XY sex reversal syndrome. The CD phenotype is sensitive to dosage and expression levels of SOX9. Sox9 is expressed during chondrocyte differentiation and is up-regulated in male and down-regulated in female genital ridges during sex differentiation. In order to study the sex- and tissue-specific regulation of Sox9, we have defined the transcription start site and characterized the mouse Sox9 promoter region. The Sox9 proximal promoter shows moderately high nucleotide similarity between mouse and human. Transient transfection experiments using various deletion constructs of the 6.8 kb upstream region of mouse Sox9 fused to a luciferase reporter showed that the interval between 193 and 73 bp from the transcription start site is essential for maximal promoter activity in cell lines and in primary male and female gonadal somatic cells and liver cells isolated from 13.5 d.p.c. mouse embryos. This minimal promoter region was shown by DNase I hypersensitive site assay to be in an 'open' state of chromatin structure in gonads of both sexes, but not in the liver. Promoter activity was higher in testis than in ovary and liver, but deletion of the region from -193 to -73 bp abolished this difference. We conclude that the proximal promoter region is in part responsible for the sex- and tissue-specific expression of the Sox9 gene and that more distal positive and negative elements contribute to its regulation in vivo, consistent with the observation that translocations upstream from SOX9 can result in campomelic dysplasia. (+info
The ciD mutation encodes a chimeric protein whose activity is regulated by Wingless signaling.
The Drosophila cubitus interruptus (ci) gene encodes a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that regulates transcription of Hedgehog (Hh) target genes. Activity of the Ci protein is posttranslationally regulated by Hh signaling. In animals homozygous for the ciD mutation, however, transcription of Hh target genes is regulated by Wingless (Wg) signaling rather than by Hh signaling. We show that ciD encodes a chimeric protein composed of the regulatory domain of dTCF/Pangolin (Pan) and the DNA binding domain of Ci. Pan is a Wg-regulated transcription factor that is activated by binding of Armadillo (Arm) to its regulatory domain. Arm is thought to activate Pan by contributing a transactivation domain. We find that a constitutively active form of Arm potentiates activity of a CiD transgene and coimmunoprecipitates with CiD protein. The Wg-responsive activity of CiD could be explained by recruitment of the Arm transactivation function to the promoters of Hh-target genes. We suggest that wild-type Ci also recruits a protein with a transactivation domain as part of its normal mechanism of activation. (+info
The Sox10(Dom) mouse: modeling the genetic variation of Waardenburg-Shah (WS4) syndrome.
Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a multigenic neurocristopathy clinically recognized by aganglionosis of the distal gastrointestinal tract. Patients presenting with aganglionosis in association with hypopigmentation are classified as Waardenburg syndrome type 4 (Waardenburg-Shah, WS4). Variability in the disease phenotype of WS4 patients with equivalent mutations suggests the influence of genetic modifier loci in this disorder. Sox10(Dom)/+ mice exhibit variability of aganglionosis and hypopigmentation influenced by genetic background similar to that observed in WS4 patients. We have constructed Sox10(Dom)/+ congenic lines to segregate loci that modify the neural crest defects in these mice. Consistent with previous studies, increased lethality of Sox10(Dom)/+ animals resulted from a C57BL/6J locus(i). However, we also observed an increase in hypopigmentation in conjunction with a C3HeB/FeJLe-a/a locus(i). Linkage analysis localized a hypopigmentation modifier of the Dom phenotype to mouse chromosome 10 in close proximity to a previously reported modifier of hypopigmentation for the endothelin receptor B mouse model of WS4. To evaluate further the role of SOX10 in development and disease, we have performed comparative genomic analyses. An essential role for this gene in neural crest development is supported by zoo blot hybridizations that reveal extensive conservation throughout vertebrate evolution and by similar Northern blot expression profiles between mouse and man. Comparative sequence analysis of the mouse and human SOX10 gene have defined the exon-intron boundaries of SOX10 and facilitated mutation analysis leading to the identification of two new SOX10 mutations in individuals with WS4. Structural analysis of the HMG DNA-binding domain was performed to evaluate the effect of human mutations in this region. (+info
Multiple layers of cooperativity regulate enhanceosome-responsive RNA polymerase II transcription complex assembly.
Two coordinate forms of transcriptional synergy mediate eukaryotic gene regulation: the greater-than-additive transcriptional response to multiple promoter-bound activators, and the sigmoidal response to increasing activator concentration. The mechanism underlying the sigmoidal response has not been elucidated but is almost certainly founded on the cooperative binding of activators and the general machinery to DNA. Here we explore that mechanism by using highly purified transcription factor preparations and a strong Epstein-Barr virus promoter, BHLF-1, regulated by the virally encoded activator ZEBRA. We demonstrate that two layers of cooperative binding govern transcription complex assembly. First, the architectural proteins HMG-1 and -2 mediate cooperative formation of an enhanceosome containing ZEBRA and cellular Sp1. This enhanceosome then recruits transcription factor IIA (TFIIA) and TFIID to the promoter to form the DA complex. The DA complex, however, stimulates assembly of the enhanceosome itself such that the entire reaction can occur in a highly concerted manner. The data reveal the importance of reciprocal cooperative interactions among activators and the general machinery in eukaryotic gene regulation. (+info
Specific binding of high-mobility-group I (HMGI) protein and histone H1 to the upstream AT-rich region of the murine beta interferon promoter: HMGI protein acts as a potential antirepressor of the promoter.
The high-mobility-group I (HMGI) protein is a nonhistone component of active chromatin. In this work, we demonstrate that HMGI protein specifically binds to the AT-rich region of the murine beta interferon (IFN-beta) promoter localized upstream of the murine virus-responsive element (VRE). Contrary to what has been described for the human promoter, HMGI protein did not specifically bind to the VRE of the murine IFN-beta promoter. Stably transfected promoters carrying mutations on this HMGI binding site displayed delayed virus-induced kinetics of transcription. When integrated into chromatin, the mutated promoter remained repressed and never reached normal transcriptional activity. Such a phenomenon was not observed with transiently transfected promoters upon which chromatin was only partially reconstituted. Using UV footprinting, we show that the upstream AT-rich sequences of the murine IFN-beta promoter constitute a preferential binding region for histone H1. Transfection with a plasmid carrying scaffold attachment regions as well as incubation with distamycin led to the derepression of the IFN-beta promoter stably integrated into chromatin. In vitro, HMGI protein was able to displace histone H1 from the upstream AT-rich region of the wild-type promoter but not from the promoter carrying mutations on the upstream high-affinity HMGI binding site. Our results suggest that the binding of histone H1 to the upstream AT-rich region of the promoter might be partly responsible for the constitutive repression of the promoter. The displacement by HMGI protein of histone H1 could help to convert the IFN-beta promoter from a repressed to an active state. (+info