Hemodynamic effects of synchronized high-frequency jet ventilation compared with low-frequency intermittent positive-pressure ventilation after myocardial revascularization.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this prospective study was to examine the effect on cardiac performance of selective increases in airway pressure at specific points of the cardiac cycle using synchronized high-frequency jet ventilation (sync-HFJV) delivered concomitantly with each single heart beat compared with controlled mechanical ventilation in 20 hemodynamically stable, deeply sedated patients immediately after coronary artery bypass graft. METHODS: Five 30-min sequential ventilation periods were used interspersing controlled mechanical ventilation with sync-HFJV twice to control for time and sequencing effects. Sync-HFJV was applied using a driving pressure, which generated a tidal volume resulting in gas exchanges close to those obtained on controlled mechanical ventilation and associated with the maximal mixed venous oxygen saturation. Hemodynamic variables including cardiac output, mixed venous oxygen saturation and vascular pressures were recorded at the end of each ventilation period. RESULTS: The authors found that in 20 patients, hemodynamic changes induced by controlled mechanical ventilation and by sync-HFJV were similar. Cardiac index did not change (mean +/- SD for controlled mechanical ventilation: 2.6 +/- 0.7 l x min(-1) x m(-2); for sync-HFJV: 2.7 +/- 0.7 l x min(-1) x m(-2); P value not significant). This observation persisted after stratification according to baseline left-ventricular contractility, as estimated by ejection fraction. CONCLUSIONS: The authors conclude that after coronary artery bypass graft, if gas-exchange values are maintained within normal range, sync-HFJV does not result in more favorable hemodynamic support than controlled mechanical ventilation. These findings contrast with the beneficial effects of sync-HFJV, resulting in marked hypocapnia, on cardiac performance observed in patients with terminal left-ventricular failure. (+info)
High frequency jet ventilation and gas trapping.
We have compared three types of high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) with conventional positive pressure ventilation in patients recovering from elective coronary artery bypass surgery. Twelve patients were allocated randomly to receive HFJV at ventilatory frequencies of 60, 100, 150 and 200 bpm from a standard jet ventilator at either the proximal or distal airway (HFJV.p and HFJV.d), or from a valveless high frequency jet ventilator acting as a pneumatic piston (VPP). Trapped gas volume (Vtr), cardiac index (CI) and right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) were measured. Vtr was related to the type of HFJV used (P < 0.05) and ventilatory frequency (P < 0.05). CI decreased with increasing rate of HFJV (P < 0.05) and there were significant differences between the three types of HFJV (P < 0.05). RVEF showed a linear relationship with ventilatory frequency (P < 0.05) decreasing most with the VPP. The decrease in RVEF was associated with an increase in right ventricular end-systolic volume (P < 0.05) suggesting that an increase in right ventricular afterload was the cause. The same three types of HFJV were compared using a lung model with variable values of compliance and resistance, to assess the impact of lung mechanics on gas trapping (Vtr, ml). Lung model compliance (C) was set at 50 or 25 ml cm H2O-1 and resistance (R) at 5 or 20 cm H2O litre-1 s, where values of 50 and 5, respectively, are normal. Vtr increased with ventilatory frequency for all types of jet ventilation (P < 0.05), varying with the type of jet ventilation used (P < 0.05). (+info)
Supralaryngeal tubeless combined high-frequency jet ventilation for laser surgery of the larynx and trachea.
We have developed a new technique of combined high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV), characterized by simultaneous application of a low-frequency (LF) and a high-frequency (HF) jet stream. Tubeless supralaryngeal jet ventilation was delivered via a modified Kleinsasser laryngoscope. We studied 44 adults undergoing 45 elective surgical procedures of the larynx and trachea using a carbon dioxide laser during HFJV. Applied inspiratory oxygen ratios ranged from 0.4 to 1.0. Mean driving pressures of the HF and LF jet streams were 1.5 bar and 1.8 bar in adults, respectively. Mean duration of HFJV was 41 (range 10-180) min. HFJV resulted in mean PaO2 and PaCO2 values of 16.6 (range 9.8-26.9) kPa and 5.7 (3.0-7.6) kPa, respectively. Tubeless supralaryngeal HFJV was safe and effective in maintaining gas exchange in the presence of laryngeal or tracheal stenoses, providing optimal visibility of anatomical structures, offering maximum space for surgical manipulation, and avoiding the use of combustible material inside the larynx or trachea. (+info)
Carbon dioxide elimination during high-frequency jet ventilation for rigid bronchoscopy.
Oxygen saturation and carbon dioxide values should be monitored during high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV). Modern transcutaneous PCO2 (PtcCO2) measurement allows the estimation of ventilation efficiency. We studied how tests of lung function could predict carbon dioxide elimination during HFJV. Lung function tests from 180 adult patients undergoing rigid bronchoscopy were analysed as factors affecting carbon dioxide elimination. The lung function test results showed a significant relationship with the efficiency of carbon dioxide elimination; the greatest impairment of carbon dioxide elimination was found in patients with combined abnormalities of lung function. Further factors associated with difficult carbon dioxide elimination were male gender and elevated body weight. Of the patients investigated, 72% had normal carbon dioxide elimination, whereas in 23% hypercapnia could be avoided only by increasing the driving pressure. The prevalence of abnormal preoperative lung function test results predicts (sensitivity 76%, positive predictive value 27%) impaired carbon dioxide elimination during jet ventilation and rigid bronchoscopy. (+info)
Influence of airway-occluding instruments on airway pressure during jet ventilation for rigid bronchoscopy.
We measured changes in airway pressure (Paw) caused by microsurgical instruments introduced into a rigid bronchoscope during high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV). With approval of the institutional Ethics Committee, 10 adults undergoing elective tracheobronchial endoscopy and endosonography during general anaesthesia were investigated. Inflation of an endosonography probe balloon in the left main stem bronchus caused airway obstruction. Pressure measurements proximal and distal to the obstruction were compared after three degrees of obstruction (0%, 50% and 90%) and with two different driving pressure settings. Airway obstruction increased the mean (SD) peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) from 7.5 (2.6) to 9.5 (3.5) mm Hg for 2 atm (P = 0.0008) and from 9.7 (3.7) to 13.0 (5.1) mm Hg for 3 atm (P = 0.0001). Airway obstruction did not alter peripheral PIP (7.2 (4.1) to 7.1 (3.7) mm Hg for 2 atm and 8.8 (4.3) to 9.4 (5.2) mm for 3 atm), but resulted in an end-expiratory pressure (EEP) beyond the narrowing being significantly greater than in the unobstructed airway (2.5 (3.4) to 5.5 (3.7) mm Hg for 2 atm; P = 0.0005) and 3.2 (3.6) to 8.0 (4.3) mm for 3 atm; P < 0.0001). Severe airway narrowing increases inspiratory pressure proximal and expiratory pressure distal to the obstruction in relation to the applied driving pressure. Since the distal EEP never exceeded PIP, even near-total airway obstruction should not cause severe lung distension or barotrauma in subjects with normal lungs. (+info)
Monitoring of PETCO2 during high frequency jet ventilation for laryngomicrosurgery.
In general, PETCO2 is well correlated with PaCO2 during spontaneous and conventional mechanical ventilation in normal lungs. However, it is known that during high frequency jet ventilation, PETCO2 may underestimate PaCO2 because of inadequate washout of the anatomical dead space by a small tidal volume and the relatively slow response time of infrared CO2 analyzers. The validity of PETCO2 as a reflection of PaCO2 was assessed during HFJV in 40 patients undergoing laryngeal microsurgery. HFJV was applied through an injector inserted into the trachea 6 cm below the vocal cord. PETCO2 was obtained from a sampling line placed 2 cm below the injector. Both PETCO2 and PaCO2 were measured simultaneously after decreasing the frequency from 100 beats per minute to 15 beats per minute 10 and 20 minutes after the commencement of HFJV. There was a strong correlation (r = 0.955, P < 0.001) and a good correspondence between the mean PETCO2 and PaCO2 values with an average difference of 1.93 +/- 1.21 mmHg and a limit of agreement from -0.49 to 4.35 mmHg. It is suggested that the PETCO2 obtained following a decrease in the jet frequency during HFJV could closely reflect PaCO2. (+info)
Transtracheal high frequency jet ventilation for endoscopic airway surgery: a multicentre study.
Serious complications during high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) are rare and have been documented in animals and in case reports or short series of patients with a difficult airway. We report complications of transtracheal HFFJV in a prospective multicentre study of 643 patients having laryngoscopy or laryngeal laser surgery. A transtracheal catheter could not be inserted in two patients (0.3%). Subcutaneous emphysema (8.4%) was more frequent after multiple tracheal punctures. There were seven pneumothoraces (1%), two after laser damage to the injector, one after difficult laryngoscopy, four with no clear cause. Arterial desaturation of oxygen was more frequent during laser surgery and in overweight patients. Transtracheal ventilation from a ventilator with an automatic cut-off device is a reliable method for experienced users. Control of airway pressure does not prevent a low frequency of pneumothorax. (+info)
Spontaneous breathing combined with high frequency ventilation during bronchoscopic resection of a large tracheal tumour.
A patient with learning difficulties had a large tracheal tumour at the carina that caused severe respiratory distress. I.v. anaesthesia with propofol, spontaneous breathing through a tracheal tube, and high frequency jet ventilation were successfully employed during bronchoscopic resection of the tumour. (+info)