(1/793) Distribution of chondroitin sulfate in cartilage proteoglycans under associative conditions.
Proteoglycan aggregates and proteoglycan subunits were extracted from bovine articular cartilage with guanidine-HC1 folowed by fractionation by equilibrium centrifugation in cesium chloride density gradients. The distribution of chondroitin sulfates (CS) in the cartilage proteoglycans was studied at the disaccharide level by digestion with chondroitinases. In the proteoglycan aggregate fraction, it was observed that the proportion of 4-sulfated disaccharide units to total CS increased from the bottom to the top fractions, whereas that of 6-sulfated disaccharide units was in the reverse order. Thus, the ratio of 4-sulfated disaccharide units to 6-sulfated disaccharide units increased significantly with decreasing density. The proportion of non-sulfated disaccharide units to total CS tended to increase with increasing density. These data indicate a polydisperse distribution of CS chains, under the conditions used here, in proteoglycan aggregates from bovine articular cartilage. (+info)
(2/793) A comparative chemical and histochemical study of the chondrodystrophoid and nonchondrodystrophoid canine intervertebral disc.
The chemical composition of the intervertebral disc of 9-month-old chondrodystrophoid and nonchondrodystrophoid dogs was studied for collagen, noncollagenous protein and glycosaminoglycan. Content of these substances differed significantly between breeds. The differences were most marked in the nucleus pulposus; the noncollagenous protein content of the nonchondrodystrophoid breed was higher than in that of the chondrodystrophoid dogs. The total nitrogen value of the nonchondrodystrophoid nuclei pulposi was less than that of the corresponding chondrodystrophoid discs mainly because of the high collagen content of the latter discs. Histochemically, it was found that the nuclei pulposi of the nonchondrodystrophoid breed contains larger amounts of glycosaminoglycan than in the discs of the chondrodystrophoid breeds. (+info)
(3/793) Decreased hexosamine biosynthesis in GH-deficient dwarf rat muscle. reversal with GH, but not IGF-I, therapy.
Enhanced glucose flux via the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HNSP) has been implicated in insulin resistance. We measured L-glutamine:D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase activity (GFAT, a rate-limiting enzyme) and concentrations of UDP-N-acetyl hexosamines (UDP-HexNAc, major products of HNSP) in muscle and liver of growth hormone (GH)-deficient male dwarf (dw) rats. All parameters measured, except body weight, were similar in 5-wk-old control and dw rats. Muscle GFAT activity declined progressively with age in controls and dw rats but was consistently 30-60% lower in 8- to 14-wk-old dw rats vs. age-matched controls; UDP-HexNAc concentrations in muscle were concomitantly 30% lower in dw rats vs. controls (P < 0.01). Concentrations of UDP-hexoses, GDP-mannose, and UDP in muscle were similar in control and dw rats. Muscle HNSP activity was similarly diminished in fed and fasted dw rats. In liver, only a small difference in GFAT activity was evident between controls and dw rats, and no differences in UDP-HexNAc concentrations were observed. Treatment with recombinant human GH (rhGH) for 5 days restored UDP-HexNAc to control levels in dw muscles (P < 0.01) and partially restored GFAT activity. Insulin-like growth factor I treatment was ineffective. We conclude that GH participates in HNSP regulation in muscle. (+info)
(4/793) Quantitative determination of N-acetylglucosamine residues at the non-reducing ends of peptidoglycan chains by enzymic attachment of [14C]-D-galactose.
The ability of human milk galactosyltransferase to attach D-galactose residues quantitatively to the C-4 of N-acetylglucosamine moieties at the ends of oligosaccharides has been utilized for the specific labeling and quantitative determination of the chain length of the glycan moiety of the bacterial cell wall. The average polysaccharide chain length of the soluble, uncrosslinked peptidoglycan secreted by Micrococcus luteus cells on incubation with penicillin G was studied with this technique and found to be approximately 70 hexosamines long. Furthermore, the peptidoglycan chain length of Escherichia coli sacculi of different cell shapes and dimensions was determined both in rod-shaped cells and in filaments induced by temperature shift of a division mutant or by addition of cephalexin or nalidixic acid. The average chain length found in most of these sacculi was between 70 and 100 hexosamines long. Small spherical 'mini' cells had chain lengths similar to those of the isogenic rod-like cells. (+info)
(5/793) Inhibition of secretion by 1,3-Cyclohexanebis(methylamine), a dibasic compound that interferes with coatomer function.
We noted previously that certain aminoglycoside antibiotics inhibit the binding of coatomer to Golgi membranes in vitro. The inhibition is mediated in part by two primary amino groups present at the 1 and 3 positions of the 2-deoxystreptamine moiety of the antibiotics. These two amines appear to mimic the epsilon-amino groups present in the two lysine residues of the KKXX motif that is known to bind coatomer. Here we report the effects of 1, 3-cyclohexanebis(methylamine) (CBM) on secretion in vivo, a compound chosen for study because it contains primary amino groups that resemble those in 2-deoxystreptamine and it should penetrate lipid bilayers more readily than antibiotics. CBM inhibited coatomer binding to Golgi membranes in vitro and in vivo and inhibited secretion by intact cells. Despite depressed binding of coatomer in vivo, the Golgi complex retained its characteristic perinuclear location in the presence of CBM and did not fuse with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Transport from the ER to the Golgi was also not blocked by CBM. These data suggest that a full complement of coat protein I (COPI) on membranes is not critical for maintenance of Golgi integrity or for traffic from the ER to the Golgi but is necessary for transport through the Golgi to the plasma membrane. (+info)
(6/793) Decreased insulin-stimulated GLUT-4 translocation in glycogen-supercompensated muscles of exercised rats.
It was recently found that the effect of an exercise-induced increase in muscle GLUT-4 on insulin-stimulated glucose transport is masked by a decreased responsiveness to insulin in glycogen-supercompensated muscle. We evaluated the role of hexosamines in this decrease in insulin responsiveness and found that UDP-N-acetyl hexosamine concentrations were not higher in glycogen-supercompensated muscles than in control muscles with a low glycogen content. We determined whether the smaller increase in glucose transport is due to translocation of fewer GLUT-4 to the cell surface with the 2-N-4-(1-azi-2,2,2-trifluroethyl)-benzoyl-1, 3-bis(D-mannose-4-yloxy)-2-propylamine (ATB-[2-3H]BMPA) photolabeling technique. The insulin-induced increase in GLUT-4 at the cell surface was no greater in glycogen-supercompensated exercised muscle than in muscles of sedentary controls and only 50% as great as in exercised muscles with a low glycogen content. We conclude that the decreased insulin responsiveness of glucose transport in glycogen-supercompensated muscle is not due to increased accumulation of hexosamine biosynthetic pathway end products and that the smaller increase in glucose transport is mediated by translocation of fewer GLUT-4 to the cell surface. (+info)
(7/793) Multiple enzymatic activities of the murein hydrolase from staphylococcal phage phi11. Identification of a D-alanyl-glycine endopeptidase activity.
Bacteriophage muralytic enzymes degrade the cell wall envelope of staphylococci to release phage particles from the bacterial cytoplasm. Murein hydrolases of staphylococcal phages phi11, 80alpha, 187, Twort, and phiPVL harbor a central domain that displays sequence homology to known N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl amidases; however, their precise cleavage sites on the staphylococcal peptidoglycan have thus far not been determined. Here we examined the properties of the phi11 enzyme to hydrolyze either the staphylococcal cell wall or purified cell wall anchor structures attached to surface protein. Our results show that the phi11 enzyme has D-alanyl-glycyl endopeptidase as well as N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl amidase activity. Analysis of a deletion mutant lacking the amidase-homologous sequence, phi11(Delta181-381), revealed that the D-alanyl-glycyl endopeptidase activity is contained within the N-terminal 180 amino acid residues of the polypeptide chain. Sequences similar to this N-terminal domain are found in the murein hydrolases of staphylococcal phages but not in those of phages that infect other Gram-positive bacteria such as Listeria or Bacillus. (+info)
(8/793) Uptake of N-acetyl-D-mannosamine: an essential intermediate in polysialic acid biosynthesis by Escherichia coli K92.
The N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc) transport system of Escherichia coli K92 was studied when this bacterium was grown in a chemically defined medium containing ManNAc as carbon source. Kinetic measurements were carried out in vivo at 37 degrees C in 25 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.5. Under these conditions, the uptake rate was linear for at least 15 min and the calculated Km for ManNAc was 280 microM. The transport system was strongly inhibited by sodium arsenate (97%), potassium cyanide (84%) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (88%) added at final concentrations of 1 mM (each). Analysis of bacterial ManNAc phosphotransferase activity revealed in vitro ManNAc phosphorylation activity only when phosphoenolpyruvate was present. These results strongly support the notion that ManNAc uptake depends on a specific phosphotransferase system. Study of specificities showed that N-acetylglucosamine and mannosamine specifically inhibited the transport of ManNAc in this bacterium. Analysis of expression revealed that the ManNAc transport system was induced by ManNAc, glucosamine, galactosamine, mannosamine and mannose but not by N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine. Moreover, ManNAc permease was subject to glucose repression and cAMP stimulation. Full induction of the ManNAc transport system required the simultaneous presence of both cAMP and ManNAc. (+info)