Comparison of ultrasmall particles of iron oxide (USPIO)-enhanced T2-weighted, conventional T2-weighted, and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR images in rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
(1/1106)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ultrasmall particles of iron oxide (USPIO) constitute a contrast agent that accumulates in cells from the mononuclear phagocytic system. In the CNS they may accumulate in phagocytic cells such as macrophages. The goal of this study was to compare USPIO-enhanced MR images with conventional T2-weighted images and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images in a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). METHODS: Nine rats with EAE and four control rats were imaged at 4.7 T and 1.5 T with conventional T1- and T2-weighted sequences, gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted sequences, and T2-weighted sequences obtained 24 hours after intravenous injection of a USPIO contrast agent, AMI-227. Histologic examination was performed with hematoxylin-eosin stain, Perls' stain for iron, and ED1 immunohistochemistry for macrophages. RESULTS: USPIO-enhanced images showed a high sensitivity (8/9) for detecting EAE lesions, whereas poor sensitivity was obtained with T2-weighted images (1/9) and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images (0/9). All the MR findings in the control rats were negative. Histologic examination revealed the presence of macrophages at the site where abnormalities were seen on USPIO-enhanced images. CONCLUSION: The high sensitivity of USPIO for macrophage activity relative to other imaging techniques is explained by the histologic findings of numerous perivascular cell infiltrates, including macrophages, in EAE. This work supports the possibility of intracellular USPIO transport to the CNS by monocytes/macrophages, which may have future implications for imaging of human inflammatory diseases. (+info)
67Cu-versus 131I-labeled Lym-1 antibody: comparative pharmacokinetics and dosimetry in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
(2/1106)Antilymphoma mouse monoclonal antibody (MoAb) Lym-1, labeled with 67Cu or 131I, has demonstrated promising results in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) for lymphoma. Although 131I has played a central role in RIT thus far, some properties of 67Cu are preferable. A subset of our patients received both 67Cu- and 131I-labeled Lym-1, allowing a comparative evaluation of the two radiopharmaceuticals administered to a matched population of patients. Four patients with B-lymphocytic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that had progressed despite standard therapy entered trials of 67Cu- and 131I-labeled Lym-1, which were injected 3-26 days apart. Lym-1 was conjugated to 6-[p-(bromoacetamido)benzyl]-1,4,7,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-N,N ',N",N'"-tetraacetic acid (BAT) via 2-iminothiolane (2IT) and radiolabeled with 67Cu to prepare 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1; 131I-Lym-1 was preparred by the chloramine-T reaction. Planar imaging was used to quantitate 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 or 131I-Lym-1 in organs and tumors daily for 3 days or longer. 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 exhibited higher peak concentration in 92% (12 of 13) of tumors and a longer biological half-time in every tumor than 131I-Lym-1. The mean tumor concentration (%ID/g) of 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 was 1.7, 2.2, and 2.8 times that of 131I-Lym-1 at 0, 24, and 48 h after injection, respectively. The mean biological half-times of 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 and 131I-Lym-1 in tumor were 8.8 and 2.3 days, respectively. Consequently, the mean tumor radiation dose delivered by 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 was twice that of 131I-Lym-1, 2.8 (range 0.8-6.7), and 1.4 (range 0.4-35) Gy/GBq, respectively. 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 delivered a lower marrow radiation dose than 131I-Lym-1; hence, the tumor:marrow therapeutic indices were 29 and 9.7, respectively. Radiation doses from 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 and 131I-Lym-1 to normal tissues were similar except for liver, which received a higher dose from 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1. Images obtained with 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 were superior. Radiation dosimetry data for 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 and 131I-Lym-1 agreed with corresponding data from the larger populations of patients from which the matched population for the current study was drawn. In conclusion, 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 given to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients in close temporal proximity to 131I-Lym-1 exhibited greater uptake and longer retention in tumor, resulting in higher radiation dose and therapeutic index than 131I-Lym-1. These as well as other factors suggest that 67Cu-2IT-BAT-Lym-1 may be superior to 131I-Lym-1 for RIT. (+info)
Efficacy of RD3-0028 aerosol treatment against respiratory syncytial virus infection in immunosuppressed mice.
(3/1106)RD3-0028, a benzodithiin compound, has antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in cell culture. We used a mouse model of RSV infection to determine the in vivo effect of RD3-0028. Cyclophosphamide (CYP)-treated, immunosuppressed mice were inoculated intranasally. The lungs of the mice were removed on day 4. The virus titers of the lungs of RD3-0028-treated mice were compared to the virus titers of the lungs of virus-inoculated, untreated control mice. In an effort to increase the therapeutic effectiveness of this compound, RD3-0028 was administered by aerosol to RSV-infected mice by using a head-exposure system. Aerosols generated from reservoirs containing RD3-0028 (7 mg/ml) administered for 2 h twice daily for 3 days significantly reduced the pulmonary titer of RSV-infected mice. It is clear that the minimal effective dose of RD3-0028 for RSV-infected mice is significantly less than that of ribavirin, the only compound currently available for use against RSV disease. Furthermore, the RD3-0028 aerosol administration appeared to protect the lungs of infected, CYP-treated mice against tissue damage, as evidenced by the preservation of the lung architecture and a reduction in pulmonary inflammatory infiltrates. RD3-0028 aerosol was not toxic for mice at the therapeutic dose. The present study demonstrates the effectiveness of aerosol administration of RD3-0028 for RSV-infected mice. (+info)
Cancer chemopreventive mechanisms of tea against heterocyclic amine mutagens from cooked meat.
(4/1106)Cooking meat and fish under normal conditions produces heterocyclic amine mutagens, several of which have been shown to induce colon tumors in experimental animals. In our search for natural dietary components that might protect against these mutagens, it was found that green tea and black tea inhibit the formation of heterocyclic amine-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the rat. Since ACF are considered to be putative preneoplastic lesions, we examined the inhibitory mechanisms of tea against the heterocyclic amines. In the initial studies using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, green tea and black tea inhibited according to the concentration of tea leaves during brewing and the time of brewing; a 2-3-min brew of 5% green tea (w/v) was sufficient for >90% antimutagenic activity. N-hydroxylated heterocyclic amines, which are direct-acting mutagens in Salmonella, were inhibited by complete tea beverage and by individual components of tea, such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Inhibition did not involve enhanced mutagen degradation, and EGCG and other catechins complexed only weakly with the mutagens, suggesting electrophile scavenging as an alternative mechanism. Enzymes that contribute to the metabolic activation of heterocyclic amines, namely microsomal NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and N, O-acetyltransferase, were inhibited by tea in vitro. Studies in vivo established that tea also induces cytochromes P450 and Phase II enzymes in a manner consistent with the rapid metabolism and excretion of heterocyclic amines. Collectively, the results indicate that tea possesses anticarcinogenic activity in the colon, and this most likely involves multiple inhibitory mechanisms. (+info)
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae hyperrecombination mutant hpr1Delta is synthetically lethal with two conditional alleles of the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase gene and causes a defect in nuclear export of polyadenylated RNA.
(5/1106)In a screen for mutants that display synthetic lethal interaction with hpr1Delta, a hyperrecombination mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have isolated a novel cold-sensitive allele of the acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase gene, acc1(cs), encoding the rate-limiting enzyme of fatty acid synthesis. The synthetic lethal phenotype of the acc1(cs) hpr1Delta double mutant was only partially complemented by exogenous fatty acids. hpr1Delta was also synthetically lethal with a previously isolated, temperature-sensitive allele of ACC1, mtr7 (mRNA transport), indicating that the lethality of the acc1(cs) hpr1Delta double mutant was not allele specific. The basis for the interaction between conditional acc1 alleles and hpr1Delta was investigated in more detail. In the hpr1Delta mutant background, acetyl-CoA carboxylase enzyme activity was reduced about 15-fold and steady-state levels of biotinylated Acc1p and ACC1 mRNA were reduced 2-fold. The reduced Acc1p activity in hpr1Delta cells, however, did not result in an altered lipid or fatty acid composition of the mutant membranes but rendered cells hypersensitive to soraphen A, an inhibitor of Acc1p. Similar to mtr7, hpr1Delta and acc1(cs) mutant cells displayed a defect in nuclear export of polyadenylated RNA. Oversized transcripts were detected in hpr1Delta, and rRNA processing was disturbed, but pre-mRNA splicing appeared wild type. Surprisingly, the transport defect of hpr1Delta and acc1(cs) mutant cells was accompanied by an altered ring-shaped structure of the nucleolus. These observations suggest that the basis for the synthetic lethal interaction between hpr1Delta and acc1 may lie in a functional overlap of the two mutations in nuclear poly(A)+ RNA production and export that results in an altered structure of the nucleolus. (+info)
Diverse oxygenations catalyzed by carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. Strain CA10.
(6/1106)Carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) from Pseudomonas sp. strain CA10 is a multicomponent enzyme that catalyzes the angular dioxygenation of carbazole, dibenzofuran, and dibenzo-p-dioxin. It was revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analyses that xanthene and phenoxathiin were converted to 2,2',3-trihydroxydiphenylmethane and 2,2',3-trihydroxydiphenyl sulfide, respectively. Thus, for xanthene and phenoxathiin, angular dioxygenation by CARDO occurred at the angular position adjacent to the oxygen atom to yield hetero ring-cleaved compounds. In addition to the angular dioxygenation, CARDO catalyzed the cis dihydroxylation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and biphenyl. Naphthalene and biphenyl were converted by CARDO to cis-1, 2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene and cis-2,3-dihydroxy-2, 3-dihydrobiphenyl, respectively. On the other hand, CARDO also catalyzed the monooxygenation of sulfur heteroatoms in dibenzothiophene and of the benzylic methylenic group in fluorene to yield dibenzothiophene-5-oxide and 9-hydroxyfluorene, respectively. These results indicate that CARDO has a broad substrate range and can catalyze diverse oxygenation: angular dioxygenation, cis dihydroxylation, and monooxygenation. The diverse oxygenation catalyzed by CARDO for several aromatic compounds might reflect the differences in the binding of the substrates to the reaction center of CARDO. (+info)
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Ro 44-3888 after single ascending oral doses of sibrafiban, an oral platelet aggregation inhibitor, in healthy male volunteers.
(7/1106)AIMS: This study constituted the first administration of the oral platelet inhibitor, sibrafiban, to humans. The aim was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Ro 44-3888, the active principle of sibrafiban, after single ascending oral doses of sibrafiban. Particular emphasis was placed on intersubject variability of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of Ro 44-3888. METHODS: The study consisted of three parts. Part I was an open ascending-dose study to determine target effect ranges of sibrafiban. Part II, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, addressed the intersubject variability of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of the active principle at a sibrafiban dose achieving an intermediate effect. Part III was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, ascending-dose design covering the complete plasma concentration vs pharmacodynamic response curve of sibrafiban. RESULTS: At sibrafiban doses between 5 mg and 12 mg, the pharmacokinetics of free Ro 44-3888 in plasma were linear whereas those of total Ro 44-3888 were non-linear because of the saturable binding to the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa receptor. Saturation of the GP IIb-IIIa receptor was reached at plasma concentrations of 15.9 ng ml-1. At sibrafiban doses up to 2 mg, ADP-induced platelet aggregation was inhibited by 50%, whereas the inhibition of TRAP-induced platelet aggregation was about 20-30%. At the higher doses, ADP-induced platelet aggregation was almost completely inhibited while a clear dose-response could be observed with TRAP-induced inhibition of platelet aggregation at sibrafiban doses of 5 to 12 mg. Ivy bleeding time increased very steeply with dose with a significant prolongation observed at doses of 5 to 7 mg of sibrafiban (5-7 min, >30 min in one case). At a sibrafiban dose of 12 mg, the stopping criterion for dose escalation (prolongation of the Ivy bleeding time >30 min in three out of four subjects per dose group) was reached. The interindividual coefficients of variation of the integrated pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters (AUC and AUE) were below 20%, thus lying well within the pre-set level of acceptance. CONCLUSIONS: With a low intersubject variability of its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters, linear pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects closely related to its plasma concentrations, Ro 44-3888 has good pharmacological prerequisites for a well controllable therapy of secondary prevention of arterial thrombosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome. (+info)
Shift of clinical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from X4 to R5 and prevention of emergence of the syncytium-inducing phenotype by blockade of CXCR4.
(8/1106)The emergence of X4 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains in HIV-1-infected individuals has been associated with CD4(+) T-cell depletion, HIV-mediated CD8(+) cell apoptosis, and an impaired humoral response. The bicyclam AMD3100, a selective antagonist of CXCR4, selected for the outgrowth of R5 virus after cultivation of mixtures of the laboratory-adapted R5 (BaL) and X4 (NL4-3) HIV strains in the presence of the compound. The addition of AMD3100 to peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with X4 or R5X4 clinical HIV isolates displaying the syncytium-inducing phenotype resulted in a complete suppression of X4 variants and a concomitant genotypic change in the V2 and V3 loops of the envelope gp120 glycoprotein. The recovered viruses corresponded genotypically and phenotypically to R5 variants in that they could no longer use CXCR4 as coreceptor or induce syncytium formation in MT-2 cells. Furthermore, the phenotype and genotype of a cloned R5 HIV-1 virus converted to those of the R5X4 virus after prolonged culture in lymphoid cells. However, these changes did not occur when the infected cells were cultured in the presence of AMD3100, despite low levels of virus replication. Our findings indicate that selective blockade of the CXCR4 receptor prevents the switch from the less pathogenic R5 HIV to the more pathogenic X4 HIV strains, a process that heralds the onset of AIDS. In this article, we show that it could be possible to redirect the evolution of HIV so as to impede the emergence of X4 strains or to change the phenotype of already-existing X4 isolates to R5. (+info)