Human herpesviruses in chronic fatigue syndrome.
We have conducted a double-blind study to assess the possible involvement of the human herpesviruses (HHVs) HHV6, HHV7, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and cytomegalovirus in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients compared to age-, race-, and gender-matched controls. The CFS patient population was composed of rigorously screened civilian and Persian Gulf War veterans meeting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's CFS case definition criteria. Healthy control civilian and veteran populations had no evidence of CFS or any other exclusionary medical or psychiatric condition. Patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed by PCR for the presence of these HHVs. Using two-tailed Fisher's exact test analyses, we were unable to ascertain any statistically significant differences between the CFS patient and control populations in terms of the detection of one or more of these viruses. This observation was upheld when the CFS populations were further stratified with regard to the presence or absence of major axis I psychopathology and patient self-reported gradual versus acute onset of disease. In tandem, we performed serological analyses of serum anti-EBV and anti-HHV6 antibody titers and found no significant differences between the CFS and control patients. (+info)
EBV gene expression not altered in rheumatoid synovia despite the presence of EBV antigen-specific T cell clones.
T cells infiltrating the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) joint are oligoclonal, implicating an Ag-driven process, but the putative joint-specific Ags remain elusive. Here we examine expression of selected EBV genes in RA synovia and find no abnormal expression in RA. DNA of CMV and EBV was detectable by PCR in the synovial tissue of RA. RNA of several latent and lytic EBV genes was also detectable. However, there were no differences in EBV gene expression in synovial tissues or peripheral blood when comparing RA with osteoarthritis, Gulf War syndrome, and other disease controls. RA synovia with highly expanded CD8 T cell clones reactive with defined EBV peptide Ags presented by HLA class I alleles lacked evidence of abnormal mRNA expression for the relevant EBV Ag (BZLF1) or lacked amplifiable mRNA (BMLF1). Thus, local production of EBV Ags in synovial tissues may not be the cause of the accumulation of T cell clones specific for these Ags. Instead, APCs loaded with processed EBV peptides may migrate to the synovium. Alternatively, EBV-specific T cells clones may be generated in other tissues and then migrate to synovia, perhaps due to cross-reactive joint-specific Ags or because of expression of homing receptors. (+info)
Down-regulation of CXCR4 by human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and HHV-7.
Recent studies have demonstrated that human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and HHV-7 interact with HIV-1 and alter the expression of various surface molecules and functions of T lymphocytes. The present study was undertaken to clarify whether coreceptors for HIV-1, CXCR4 and CCR5, are necessary for HHV-6 and HHV-7 infection. Although CXCR4 and CCR5 appeared not to be the coreceptors for these viruses, marked down-regulation of CXCR4, but not CCR5, was detected in HHV-6 variant A (HHV-6A)-, HHV-6 variant B (HHV-6B)-, and HHV-7-infected cells. Down-regulation of CXCR4 resulted in impairment of chemotaxis and a decreased level of elevation of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in response to stromal cell-derived factor-1. Northern blot analysis of mRNAs extracted from HHV-6A-, HHV-6B-, and HHV-7-infected CD4+ T lymphocytes demonstrated a markedly decreased level of CXCR4 gene transcription, but the posttranscriptional stability of CXCR4 mRNA was not significantly altered. These data demonstrate that unlike HIV-1, HHV-6 and HHV-7 infections do not require expression of CXCR4 or CCR5, whereas marked down-regulation of CXCR4 is induced by these viruses, suggesting that HHV-6 and HHV-7 infections may render CD4+ T lymphocytes resistant to T lymphocyte-tropic HIV-1 infection. (+info)
Human herpesvirus 6: An emerging pathogen.
Infections with human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), a beta-herpesvirus of which two variant groups (A and B) are recognized, is very common, approaching 100% in seroprevalence. Primary infection with HHV-6B causes roseola infantum or exanthem subitum, a common childhood disease that resolves spontaneously. After primary infection, the virus replicates in the salivary glands and is shed in saliva, the recognized route of transmission for variant B strains; it remains latent in lymphocytes and monocytes and persists at low levels in cells and tissues. Not usually associated with disease in the immunocompetent, HHV-6 infection is a major cause of opportunistic viral infections in the immunosuppressed, typically AIDS patients and transplant recipients, in whom HHV-6 infection/reactivation may culminate in rejection of transplanted organs and death. Other opportunistic viruses, human cytomegalovirus and HHV-7, also infect or reactivate in persons at risk. Another disease whose pathogenesis may be correlated with HHV-6 is multiple sclerosis. Data in favor of and against the correlation are discussed. (+info)
Tamplicon-7, a novel T-lymphotropic vector derived from human herpesvirus 7.
We describe the derivation of a novel T-cell-defective virus vector employing the human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7). The new vector, designated Tamplicon-7, replicates in CD4(+) T cells. The system is composed of a helper virus and defective virus genomes derived by the replication of the input Tamplicon vector. There are two cis-acting functions required for the replication and packaging of the defective virus genomes in the presence of the helper virus: the viral DNA replication origin and the composite cleavage and packaging signal, which directs the cleavage and packaging of defective virus genomes. Viral DNA replication is compatible with the rolling circle mechanism, producing large head-to-tail concatemers of the Tamplicon vector. Thus, in the presence of the helper virus, the replicated vectors are packaged and secreted into the medium. Furthermore, we have shown that the vector can be employed to express a foreign gene, encoding the green fluorescent protein, in the T cells infected with the HHV-7 helper virus. We predict that the Tamplicon-7 vector might be potentially useful for gene therapy of diseases affecting the human CD4(+) T cells, including autoimmune diseases, T-cell lymphomas, and AIDS. (+info)
Preferential associations of alleles of three distinct genes argue for the existence of two prototype variants of human herpesvirus 7.
We had previously described six distinct alleles of the glycoprotein B (gB) gene of human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7). The genetic changes corresponding to these alleles did not affect gB gene transcription or translation in in vitro assays. The study of distinct HHV-7-positive human samples showed preferential associations of some gB alleles with some alleles of two other genes, distantly located on the HHV-7 genome, coding for the phosphoprotein p100 (p100) and the major capsid protein (MCP). Two allele combinations, corresponding to 44 and 31% of the samples studied, respectively, were interpreted as the genetic signatures of two major prototype HHV-7 variants. (+info)
Development of recombinant diagnostic reagents based on pp85(U14) and p86(U11) proteins to detect the human immune response to human herpesvirus 7 infection.
Human antibodies raised in response to human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) infection are directed predominantly to one or more HHV-7-infected cell proteins with apparent molecular masses of about 85 to 89 kDa. The genes that encode these proteins are unknown. However, several HHH-7 genes that possibly encode proteins in this molecular mass range have been identified. Thus, the proteins encoded by open reading frame U14 (85 kDa) and U11 (86 kDa) were expressed as recombinant proteins in bacteria. Of 13 human serum specimens that recognized the 85- to 89-kDa protein(s) of HHV-7-infected cells by immunoblotting, 12 were also reactive with recombinant pp85(U14) and 8 were reactive with p86(U11). It is concluded that (i) the HHV-7 immunodominant protein is pp85(U14) and (ii) the lack of posttranslational modifications in procaryotically expressed pp85 does not adversely affect the reactivity of human sera. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) 5E1 is an HHV-7-specific MAb directed to pp85(U14). Here, the HHV-7-specific epitope in pp85(U14) was finely mapped to the C' terminal region between amino acid residues 484 and 502. However, as indicated by the low level of reactivity of human sera with the HHV-7-specific epitope recognized by MAb 5E1, human sera recognize additional epitopes of pp85(U14) that are required for their full reactivity. (+info)
Temporal mapping of transcripts in human herpesvirus-7.
Transcription of human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7) in cultures of productively infected T-cells was studied. Transcription of HHV-7 was regulated by the typical herpesvirus cascade in which alpha, beta and gamma genes are sequentially transcribed. Transcripts of U10, U14, U18, U31, U39, U41, U42, U53, U73 and U89/90 were detected 3 h after infection and were not inhibited by the absence of protein synthesis and therefore were alpha functions. U19 and U18/20 were beta genes; their transcription was inhibited by cycloheximide but not by phosphonoacetate, an inhibitor of DNA synthesis. U60/66 and U98/100 were gamma genes since their spliced transcripts were not detected in cells treated with phosphonoacetate. HHV-7 transcription was regulated by complex mechanisms, which involve the temporal coordinated activation of specific viral promoters and post-transcriptional processing. Splice mechanisms were also temporally regulated. Transcription of U89/90 pre-mRNA and splice took place simultaneously in the immediate-early phase. On the other hand, U16/17 pre-mRNA was synthesized with typical alpha kinetics, but the spliced product was regulated as a beta function. Likewise, the primary transcripts of U60/66 and U98/100 were alpha and beta, respectively, but both spliced products were synthesized in the late phase of virus replication. Finally, HHV-7 supported a bona fide latent infection in the adult population, since viral transcripts were not detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy donors infected with HHV-7. (+info)