Novel mutation of the P0 extracellular domain causes a Dejerine-Sottas syndrome.
A patient is described with a Dejerine-Sottas syndrome caused by a novel heterozygous Cys(98)Tyr mutation in the extracellular domain of the major peripheral myelin protein zero (P0ex). Homotypical interactions between P0ex tetramers of apposed extracellular faces of the Schwann cell membrane play a crucial part in myelin compaction. The amino acid change disrupts a unique disulphide bond that stabilises the immunoglobulin-like structure of P0ex and it is predicted to cause severe dehypomyelination through dominant negative effects on the wild type protein. (+info)
MR imaging of Dejerine-Sottas disease.
We report the MR findings in two patients with clinically and histologically proved Dejerine-Sottas disease. One patient had spinal involvement with multiple thickened and clumped nerve roots of the cauda equina; the second had multiple enlarged and enhancing cranial nerves. Although these findings are not specific for Dejerine-Sottas disease, they are suggestive of the diagnosis, which is further corroborated with history and confirmed with sural nerve biopsy and laboratory studies. (+info)
Novel mutation in the myelin protein zero gene in a family with intermediate hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the molecular basis for autosomal dominant intermediate hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) in a four generation family. The gene defects in families with intermediate HMSN are not known, but it has been suggested that most have X linked HMSN. METHODS: All participating family members were examined clinically. Genomic DNA was obtained from 10 affected and seven unaffected members. Linkage analysis for the known HMSN loci was first performed. Mutations in the peripheral myelin protein zero gene (PMP0) were sought in two affected members, using one unaffected member for comparison, by amplification of the six exons of the gene followed by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, dideoxy fingerprinting (ddF), and sequencing. Subsequently, the mutation was screened for in all affected and unaffected members in the family using Alu I digestion and in 100 unrelated control subjects using "snap back" SSCP analysis. Sequencing of cDNA from a sural nerve biopsy from an affected member was also performed. RESULTS: The clinical phenotype was of variable severity, with motor nerve conduction velocities in the intermediate range. Linkage to PMP0 was demonstrated. Analysis of genomic DNA and cDNA for PMP0 identified a novel codon 35 GAC to TAC mutation. The mutation produces an inferred amino acid change of aspartate to tyrosine at codon six of the processed protein (Asp6Tyr) in the extracellular domain and was present in all affected family members but not in 100 unrelated controls. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings further extend the range of phenotypes associated with PMP0 mutations and indicate that families with "intermediate" HMSN need not necessarily be X-linked as previously suggested. (+info)
Homologous DNA exchanges in humans can be explained by the yeast double-strand break repair model: a study of 17p11.2 rearrangements associated with CMT1A and HNPP.
Rearrangements in 17p11.2, responsible for the 1.5 Mb duplications and deletions associated, respectively, with autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A disease (CMT1A) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) are a suitable model for studying human recombination. Rearrangements in 17p11.2 are caused by unequal crossing-over between two homologous 24 kb sequences, the CMT1A-REPs, that flank the disease locus and occur in most cases within a 1.7 kb hotspot. We sequenced this hotspot in 28 de novo patients (25 CMT1A and three HNPP), in order to localize precisely, at the DNA sequence level, the crossing-overs. We show that some chimeric CMT1A-REPs in de novo patients (10/28) present conversion of DNA segments associated with the crossing-over. These rearrangements can be explained by the double-strand break (DSB) repair model described in yeast. Fine mapping of the de novo rearrangements provided evidence that the successive steps of this model, heteroduplex DNA formation, mismatch correction and gene conversion, occurred in patients. Furthermore, the model explains 17p11.2 recombinations between chromosome homologues as well as between sister chromatids. In addition, defective mismatch repair of the heteroduplex DNA, observed in two patients, resulted in two heterozygous chimeric CMT1A-REPs which can be explained, as in yeast, by post-meiotic segregation. This work supports the hypothesis that the DSB repair model of DNA exchange may apply universally from yeasts to humans. (+info)
Clinicopathologic analysis of 124 biopsy-proven peripheral nerve diseases.
We reviewed dinical, histological and ultrastructural findings of 124 cases of sural nerve biopsy specimens to delineate the trends of peripheral nerve diseases in our institute. Eighty-one were men and 43 were women. We categorized them into five groups: specific diagnosis (66 cases, 53.2%), axonal degeneration type (47 cases, 37.9%), demyelinating type (4 cases, 3.2%), mixed axonal degeneration-demyelinating type (6 cases, 4.8%) and normal (1 case, 0.9%). Cases with specific diagnosis included 21 inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (15 chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, 6 Guillain-Barre disease), 13 hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (7 Charcot-Marie-Tooth type I, 6 Charcot-Marie-Tooth type II), 10 vasculitis, 6 toxic neuropathy, 4 leprosy, 3 diabetic neuropathy, 2 alcoholic neuropathy, 1 Fabry's disease and other specific diseases (5 cases). In our cases, the proportion of specific diagnoses was higher, while the proportion of demyelinating peripheral neuropathies and normal were lower than those of Western series. The results of this study indicate that 1) a dose clinicopathologic correlation is important to make a precise diagnosis of peripheral nerve biopsy, 2) Biopsy under strict indication may reduce unnecessary histologic examination, 3) There is no difference in disease pattern of peripheral neuropathy between Western people and Koreans. (+info)
N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 is mutated in hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom.
Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies, to which Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease belongs, are a common cause of disability in adulthood. Growing awareness that axonal loss, rather than demyelination per se, is responsible for the neurological deficit in demyelinating CMT disease has focused research on the mechanisms of early development, cell differentiation, and cell-cell interactions in the peripheral nervous system. Autosomal recessive peripheral neuropathies are relatively rare but are clinically more severe than autosomal dominant forms of CMT, and understanding their molecular basis may provide a new perspective on these mechanisms. Here we report the identification of the gene responsible for hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom (HMSNL). HMSNL shows features of Schwann-cell dysfunction and a concomitant early axonal involvement, suggesting that impaired axon-glia interactions play a major role in its pathogenesis. The gene was previously mapped to 8q24.3, where conserved disease haplotypes suggested genetic homogeneity and a single founder mutation. We have reduced the HMSNL interval to 200 kb and have characterized it by means of large-scale genomic sequencing. Sequence analysis of two genes located in the critical region identified the founder HMSNL mutation: a premature-termination codon at position 148 of the N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1). NDRG1 is ubiquitously expressed and has been proposed to play a role in growth arrest and cell differentiation, possibly as a signaling protein shuttling between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. We have studied expression in peripheral nerve and have detected particularly high levels in the Schwann cell. Taken together, these findings point to NDRG1 having a role in the peripheral nervous system, possibly in the Schwann-cell signaling necessary for axonal survival. (+info)
Exposure at the cell surface is required for gas3/PMP22 To regulate both cell death and cell spreading: implication for the Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A and Dejerine-Sottas diseases.
Gas3/PMP22 is a tetraspan membrane protein highly expressed in myelinating Schwann cells. Point mutations in the gas3/PMP22 gene account for the dominant inherited peripheral neuropathies Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A disease (CMT1A) and Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DSS). Gas3/PMP22 can regulate apoptosis and cell spreading in cultured cells. Gas3/PMP22 point mutations, which are responsible for these diseases, are defective in this respect. In this report, we demonstrate that Gas3/PMP22-WT is exposed at the cell surface, while its point-mutated derivatives are intracellularly retained, colocalizing mainly with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The putative retrieval motif present in the carboxyl terminus of Gas3/PMP22 is not sufficient for the intracellular sequestration of its point-mutated forms. On the contrary, the introduction of a retrieval signal at the carboxyl terminus of Gas3/PMP22-WT leads to its intracellular accumulation, which is accompanied by a failure to trigger cell death as well as by changes in cell spreading. In addition, by substituting the Asn at position 41 required for N-glycosylation, we provide evidence that N-glycosylation is required for the full effect on cell spreading, but it is not necessary for triggering cell death. In conclusion, we suggest that the DSS and the CMT1A neuropathies derived from point mutations of Gas3/PMP22 might arise, at the molecular level, from a reduced exposure of Gas3/PMP22 at the cell surface, which is required to exert its biological functions. (+info)
Rapid real-time fluorescent PCR gene dosage test for the diagnosis of DNA duplications and deletions.
BACKGROUND: Current methods to determine gene dosage are time-consuming and labor-intensive. We describe a new and rapid method to assess gene copy number for identification of DNA duplications or deletions occurring in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), respectively. METHODS: We studied 16 patients with HNPP, 4 with CMT1A, and 49 control subjects. We used real-time PCR on the LightCycler system with use of a single capillary tube and no post-PCR handling. A polymorphic fragment of the PMP22 gene was amplified to determine gene dosage for heterozygous samples. The presence of two alleles was used to indicate that no deletion was present in HNPP samples. The ratio obtained between the areas under each allele melting curve of heterozygous CMT1A samples was used to determine whether the sequence was duplicated or normal. Homozygous samples required a competitive gene dosage test, where the ratio between the areas under the melting curves of the target DNA of samples and of the competitor molecule was used to determine whether the target sequence was duplicated, deleted, or normal. Samples from HNPP, CMT1A, and controls were analyzed. RESULTS: Area ratios were approximately 0.6, 1.0, and 2.0 for HNPP, control, and CMT1A samples, respectively. The results agreed with those obtained by Southern blotting and microsatellite analysis in the same samples. CONCLUSIONS: Direct and competitive real-time fluorescent PCR can differentiate one, two, or three copies of the target DNA. The method described is sensitive and accurate for detection of CMT1A duplications and HNPP deletions and is faster and easier than current methods. (+info)