(1/151) The rfaE gene from Escherichia coli encodes a bifunctional protein involved in biosynthesis of the lipopolysaccharide core precursor ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose.
The intermediate steps in the biosynthesis of the ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose precursor of inner core lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are not yet elucidated. We isolated a mini-Tn10 insertion that confers a heptoseless LPS phenotype in the chromosome of Escherichia coli K-12. The mutation was in a gene homologous to the previously reported rfaE gene from Haemophilus influenzae. The E. coli rfaE gene was cloned into an expression vector, and an in vitro transcription-translation experiment revealed a polypeptide of approximately 55 kDa in mass. Comparisons of the predicted amino acid sequence with other proteins in the database showed the presence of two clearly separate domains. Domain I (amino acids 1 to 318) shared structural features with members of the ribokinase family, while Domain II (amino acids 344 to 477) had conserved features of the cytidylyltransferase superfamily that includes the aut gene product of Ralstonia eutrophus. Each domain was expressed individually, demonstrating that only Domain I could complement the rfaE::Tn10 mutation in E. coli, as well as the rfaE543 mutation of Salmonella enterica SL1102. DNA sequencing of the rfaE543 gene revealed that Domain I had one amino acid substitution and a 12-bp in-frame deletion resulting in the loss of four amino acids, while Domain II remained intact. We also demonstrated that the aut::Tn5 mutation in R. eutrophus is associated with heptoseless LPS, and this phenotype was restored following the introduction of a plasmid expressing the E. coli Domain II. Thus, both domains of rfaE are functionally different and genetically separable confirming that the encoded protein is bifunctional. We propose that Domain I is involved in the synthesis of D-glycero-D-manno-heptose 1-phosphate, whereas Domain II catalyzes the ADP transfer to form ADP-D-glycero-D-manno-heptose. (+info)
(2/151) Constitution of the cell envelope of Haemophilus influenzae in relation to competence for genetic transformation.
Cell envelopes of Haemophilus influenzae have been prepared by breakage in a French pressure cell followed by differential centrifugation. The envelope fraction may be resolved into an inner-membrane (light) and an outer-membrane (heavy) fraction on density gradients. Envelopes from competent cells possess elevated levels of lipopolysaccharide with a composition different from that of log-phase cell envelopes. Three apparently new polypeptides have been observed in envelopes from competent cells by gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate; additional quantitative alterations in the profiles of membrane polypeptides also company the development of the capacity to transport deoxyribonucleic acid. Most of the polypeptide changes are confined to the outer membrane; one new polypeptide is associated with the inner cytoplasmic membrane of competent cells. Protein synthesis during competence developement is rquired for the change in lipopolysaccharides and in the envelope polypeptides to occur. (+info)
(3/151) Characterization of lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli K-12 mutants.
Chemical analyses of the carbohydrate composition of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from a number of LPS mutants were used to propose a schematic composition for the LPS from Escherichia coli K-12. The formula contains four regions: the first consists of lipid A, ketodeoxyoctonoic acid, and a phosphorous component; the second contains only heptose; the third only glucose; and the fourth additional glucose, galactose, and rhamnose. LPS from E. coli B may have a similar composition but lacks the galactose and rhamnose units. A set of LPS-specific bacteriophages were used for comparing three mutants of Salmonella with a number of LPS mutants of E. coli K-12. The results confirm that there are basic similarities in the first and second regions of the LPS structure; they also support the four region divisions of the LPS formula. Paper chromatography was used for characterization of 32-P-labeled LPS from different strains of E. coli and Salmonella. The Rf values for LPS varied from 0.27 to 0.75 depending on the amounts of carbohydrates in the molecule. LPS from all strains studied was homogenous except for strain D31 which produced two types of LPS. Mild acid hydrolysis of labeled LPS liberated lipid A and two other components with phosphate, one of which was assigned to the first region. It is suggested that paper chromatography can be used in biosynthetic studies concerning regions 2 to 4. (+info)
(4/151) Blocking of bacteriophages phi W and phi 5 with lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli K-12 mutants.
In the preceding paper we presented a formula for the composition of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Escherichia coli K-12. This formula contains four regions defined from analyses of LPS from four key strains, the parent and mutants which had lost one, two, or three regions of their carbohydrates. Support for the formula was derived from the susceptibility of the key mutants to several bacteriophages. One of these, phage phi W, was found specific for strains which had lost region 4. In this paper we described inactivation in vitro of phage phi W and its host-range mutant phi 5, using LPS devoid of regions 2 to 4. The blocking of phi W was found to require about 0.15 M concentrations of monovalent cations and to be inhibited by low concentrations of calcium and magnesium ions. One particle of phage phi W required 2 times 10-16 g of LPS devoid of region 4 for stoichiometric inactivation. Phage phi 5 was blocked by both heptose-less LPS (devoid of regions 2 to 4) and glucose-less LPS (devoid of regions 3 to 4) but was unaffected by LPS devoid of region 4. LPS from a heptose-less mutant of Salmonella minnesota showed the same inactivation ability as did LPS from heptose-less strains of E. coli K-12. Lipid A was prepared from LPS containing all four regions. Such lipid A was found to inactivate phi 5, whereas both the polysaccharide moiety as well as the intact LPS were without effect. It is suggested that lipid A is part of the receptor site for phage phi 5. (+info)
(5/151) Phage conversion of Shigella flexneri group antigens.
A temperate phage, designated Sf6, has been isolated from Shigella flexneri 3a. Characterization of Sf6 revealed that it possesses the capacity for converting the S. flexneri 3,4 group antigen complex to group factor 6. Serological studies and chemical analysis of lipopolysaccharide from converted strains suggest that group factor 6 is a reflection of an acetylation of the preexisting 3,4 antigen complex. Evidence is provided that the 3,4 group antigen complex functions, at least in part, as a cell surface receptor site for Sf6 adsorption. (+info)
(6/151) Mutations in Salmonella typhimurium conferring resistance to Felix O phage without loss of smooth character.
Several mutants obtained from smooth Salmonella typhimurium strains by selection for resistance to Felix O (FO) phage [whose receptor site includes the N-acetylglucosamine branch of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core] were smooth in cultural properties, antigenic character and phage sensitivity pattern (except for their FO resistance). However, the affected genes of several such 'FOR' (FO-resistant) mutants were shown by transduction of map in the short cysE-pyrE segment, which includes nearly all known rfa genes responsible for synthesis of LPS core. All of seven FOR mutants differed from their parents, and resembled rfa mutants with defects in the deeper part of the LPS core, by increased sensitivity to various antibiotics. One FOR mutant was non-virulent (LD50 greater than 10-7, compared with smaller than 100 for its parent); LT7 derivatives given this FOR gene by co-transduction with cysE+ were likewise non-virulent. It is inferred that FOR mutations affect the assembly of the inner part of the LPS core, perhaps causing incomplete blocks in glycosyl transferase reactions. (+info)
(7/151) Cell-wall lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli B.
The lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli BB and a number of R-phage selected (e.g. T3, T4) cell-wall-defective mutants were analyzed. From their lipopolysaccharides the respective core oligosaccharides were obtained. Following dephosphorylation, the oligosaccharides were methylated and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. This revealed the sugar sequence in the hexose-heptose region of the core. The linkage of heptose (Hep) to 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate (KDO) was established as ... Hep 1,5 leads to KDO ... by methylation analysis. The substituted derivative of KDO was identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The KDO region contains three KDO units. Its structure was elaborated by (a) selective removal and identification of 7-phosphoryl ethanolamine-KDO (KDO-PN), (b) periodate oxidation and thiobarbituric acid reaction in conjunction with mild hydrolysis, (c) a modified methylation analysis. Phosphate substitution of E. coli BB core was studied by beta-elimination and using the information obtained with KDO-PN. The structures of the cell wall lipopolysaccharides from E. coli BB and cell-wall-defective mutants are given. (+info)
(8/151) Comparison of the cell envelope structure of a lipopolysaccharide-defective (heptose-deficient) strain and a smooth strain of Salmonella typhimurium.
The cell envelope structure of Salmonella typhimurium LT2, which has a heptose-deficient lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is significantly different from that of an isogenic strain with a normal LPS. The rough strain, when examined by freeze-etching, lacks most surface structures that are routinely present in the smooth strain (surface particles and flagella) and has few transmemberane studs in the cytoplasmic membrane (those present are generally found in aggregates), and the outer membrane cleavage is substantially stronger than that of the smooth strain. These envelope differences were independent of both growth temperature and culture age. Examination of ultrathin sections indicated that the rough strain has an outer membrane which forms a much more defined double-track artifact than the smooth strain. The addition of MgCl2 to the growth medium of the rough strain decreased the extent of outer membrane cleavage, and flagella became evident in freeze-etched preparations. The presence of supplemental MgCl2 in the growth medium, which resulted in these morphological changes in the rough strain, also produced growth at a previously restrictive temperature and a decrease in the leakage of periplasmic enzymes. The smooth strain was unaltered morphologically or physiologically by MgCl2 under identical conditions. It is suggested that the outer membrane of the rough strain is more planar. (+info)