A multistate, foodborne outbreak of hepatitis A. National Hepatitis A Investigation Team.
BACKGROUND: We investigated a large, foodborne outbreak of hepatitis A that occurred in February and March 1997 in Michigan and then extended the investigation to determine whether it was related to sporadic cases reported in other states among persons who had consumed frozen strawberries, the food suspected of causing the outbreak. METHODS: The cases of hepatitis A were serologically confirmed. Epidemiologic studies were conducted in the two states with sufficient numbers of cases, Michigan and Maine. Hepatitis A virus RNA detected in clinical specimens was sequenced to determine the relatedness of the virus from outbreak-related cases and other cases. RESULTS: A total of 213 cases of hepatitis A were reported from 23 schools in Michigan and 29 cases from 13 schools in Maine, with the median rate of attack ranging from 0.2 to 14 percent. Hepatitis A was associated with the consumption of frozen strawberries in a case-control study (odds ratio for the disease, 8.3; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.1 to 33) and a cohort study (relative risk of infection, 7.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 53) in Michigan and in a case-control study in Maine (odds ratio for infection, 3.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.0 to 14). The genetic sequences of viruses from 126 patients in Michigan and Maine were identical to one another and to those from 5 patients in Wisconsin and 7 patients in Arizona, all of whom attended schools where frozen strawberries from the same processor had been served, and to those in 2 patients from Louisiana, both of whom had consumed commercially prepared products containing frozen strawberries from the same processor. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a large outbreak of hepatitis A in Michigan that was associated with the consumption of frozen strawberries. We found apparently sporadic cases in other states that could be linked to the same source by viral genetic analysis. (+info)
Prevalence of enteric hepatitis A and E viruses in the Mekong River delta region of Vietnam.
A study of antibody prevalence for hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) was carried out in southwestern Vietnam in an area adjacent to a known focus of epidemic HEV transmission. The purpose of this investigation was first to provide a prevalence measure of hepatitis infections, and second to determine the outbreak potential of HEV as a function of the susceptible population. Blood specimens collected from 646 persons in randomly selected village hamlets were examined by an ELISA for anti-HEV IgG and anti-HAV IgG. The prevalences of anti-HEV IgG and anti-HAV IgG were 9% and 97%, respectively. There was a significant increase (P < 0.01) in age-specific anti-HEV IgG. A notable increase in anti-HAV IgG prevalence (P < 0.0001) occurred between child populations 0-4 (64%) and 5-9 (95%) years of age. No evidence of familial clustering of anti-HEV IgG-positive individuals was detected, and household crowding was not associated with the spread of HEV. Boiling of water was found to be of protective value against HEV transmission. A relatively low prevalence of anti-HEV indicates considerable HEV outbreak potential, against a background of 1) poor, water-related hygiene/sanitation, 2) dependence on a (likely human/animal waste)-contaminated Mekong riverine system, and 3) periodic river flooding. (+info)
Avian encephalomyelitis virus is a picornavirus and is most closely related to hepatitis A virus.
The complete RNA genome of avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV) has been molecularly cloned and sequenced. This revealed AEV to be a member of the Picornaviridae and consequently it is the first avian picornavirus for which the genome has been sequenced. Excluding the poly(A) tail the genome comprises 7032 nucleotides, which is shorter than that of any mammalian picornavirus sequenced to date. An open reading frame commencing at nucleotide 495 and terminating at position 6896 (6402 nucleotides) potentially encodes a polyprotein of 2134 amino acids. The polyprotein sequence has 39% overall amino acid identity with hepatitis A virus (HAV; genus Hepatovirus), compared to 19 to 21% for viruses from the other five picornavirus genera. Eleven cleavage products were predicted. The highest identity (49%) with HAV was in the P1 region, encoding the capsid proteins. The 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) comprise 494 and 136 nucleotides, respectively. The 5' UTR is the shortest of any picornavirus sequenced to date and, unlike HAV, it does not contain a long polypyrimidine tract. (+info)
Conformational changes in the hepatitis A virus capsid in response to acidic conditions.
Low pH values encountered during uptake of viruses by receptor-mediated endocytosis have been shown to expose hydrophobic residues of many viruses and result in viral conformational changes leading to uncoating of the viral genome. An assay for hydrophobicity utilising the non-ionic detergent Triton X-114 was established, making use of metabolically-labelled hepatitis A virus (HAV). In this assay, hydrophilic proteins interact with the aqueous (buffer) phase, while hydrophobic proteins interact with the Triton (detergent) phase. HAV particles interact with the aqueous phase at neutral pH, whereas, under acidic conditions, HAV was found predominantly in the detergent phase. This indicates that the capsid of HAV undergoes conformational changes rendering the particle more hydrophobic under acidic conditions. A further two conformational changes were found in HAV on exposure to low pH, as detected by changes in buoyant density in CsCl gradients. These were maturation of provirions to virions and the formation of dense particles. These results may have implications for uncoating of the HAV RNA genome, and these conformational changes could represent intermediates in the viral uncoating process. (+info)
Hepatitis A virus capsid protein VP1 has a heterogeneous C terminus.
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) encodes a single polyprotein which is posttranslationally processed into the functional structural and nonstructural proteins. Only one protease, viral protease 3C, has been implicated in the nine protein scissions. Processing of the capsid protein precursor region generates a unique intermediate, PX (VP1-2A), which accumulates in infected cells and is assumed to serve as precursor to VP1 found in virions, although the details of this reaction have not been determined. Coexpression in transfected cells of a variety of P1 precursor proteins with viral protease 3C demonstrated efficient production of PX, as well as VP0 and VP3; however, no mature VP1 protein was detected. To identify the C-terminal amino acid residue of HAV VP1, we performed peptide sequence analysis by protease-catalyzed [18O]H2O incorporation followed by liquid chromatography ion-trap microspray tandem mass spectrometry of HAV VP1 isolated from purified virions. Two different cell culture-adapted isolates of HAV, strains HM175pE and HM175p35, were used for these analyses. VP1 preparations from both virus isolates contained heterogeneous C termini. The predominant C-terminal amino acid in both virus preparations was VP1-Ser274, which is located N terminal to a methionine residue in VP1-2A. In addition, the analysis of HM175pE recovered smaller amounts of amino acids VP1-Glu273 and VP1-Thr272. In the case of HM175p35, which contains valine at amino acid position VP1-273, VP1-Thr272 was found in addition to VP1-Ser274. The data suggest that HAV 3C is not the protease responsible for generation of the VP1 C terminus. We propose the involvement of host cell protease(s) in the production of HAV VP1. (+info)
Maturation of the hepatitis A virus capsid protein VP1 is not dependent on processing by the 3Cpro proteinase.
Most details of the processing of the hepatitis A virus (HAV) polyprotein are known. Unique among members of the family Picornaviridae, the primary cleavage of the HAV polyprotein is mediated by 3Cpro, the only proteinase known to be encoded by the virus, at the 2A/2B junction. All other cleavages of the polyprotein have been considered to be due to 3Cpro, although the precise location and mechanism responsible for the VP1/2A cleavage have been controversial. Here we present data that argue strongly against the involvement of the HAV 3Cpro proteinase in the maturation of VP1 from its VP1-2A precursor. Using a heterologous expression system based on recombinant vaccinia viruses directing the expression of full-length or truncated capsid protein precursors, we show that the C terminus of the mature VP1 capsid protein is located near residue 764 of the polyprotein. However, a proteolytically active HAV 3Cpro that was capable of directing both VP0/VP3 and VP3/VP1 cleavages in vaccinia virus-infected cells failed to process the VP1-2A precursor. Using site-directed mutagenesis of an infectious molecular clone of HAV, we modified potential VP1/2A cleavage sites that fit known 3Cpro recognition criteria and found that a substitution that ablates the presumed 3Cpro dipeptide recognition sequence at Glu764-Ser765 abolished neither infectivity nor normal VP1 maturation. Altered electrophoretic mobility of VP1 from a viable mutant virus with an Arg764 substitution indicated that this residue is present in VP1 and that the VP1/2A cleavage occurs downstream of this residue. These data indicate that maturation of the HAV VP1 capsid protein is not dependent on 3Cpro processing and may thus be uniquely dependent on a cellular proteinase. (+info)
Antigenic epitopes of the hepatitis A virus polyprotein.
Forty-two antigenic domains were identified across the hepatitis A virus (HAV) polyprotein by using a set of 237 overlapping 20-mer synthetic peptides spanning the entire HAV polyprotein and a panel of serum samples from acutely HAV-infected patients. The term "antigenic domain" is used in this study to define a protein region spanned with consecutive overlapping immunoreactive peptides. Nineteen antigenic domains were found within the structural proteins, and 22 were found within the nonstructural proteins, with 1 domain spanning the junction of VP1 and P2A proteins. Five of these domains were considered immunodominant, as judged by both the breadth and the strength of their immunoreactivity. One domain is located within the VP2 protein at position 57-90 aa. A second domain, located at position 767-842 aa, contains the C-terminal part of the VP1 protein and the entire P2A protein. A third domain, located at position 1403-1456 aa, comprises the C-terminal part of the P2C protein and the N-terminal half of the P3A protein. The fourth domain, located at position 1500-1519 aa, includes almost the entire P3B, and the last domain, located at position 1719-1764 aa, contains the C-terminal region of the P3C protein and the N-terminal region of the P3D protein. It is interesting to note that four of the five most immunoreactive domains are derived from small HAV proteins and/or encompass protein cleavage sites separating different HAV proteins. The HAV-specific immunoreactivity of each antigenically reactive peptide was confirmed by using seven HAV seroconversion panels. Collectively, these data demonstrate that HAV structural and nonstructural proteins contain antigenic epitopes that can be efficiently modeled with short synthetic peptides. (+info)
Lack of evidence for increased risk of hepatitis A infection in homosexual men.
In 1997, prevalence of and risk factors for hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection were evaluated in 146 homosexual and 286 heterosexual men attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Clinic in Rome, Italy. Total HAV antibody (anti-HAV) was detected in 60.3% of homosexuals and 62.2% of heterosexuals. After adjustment for the confounding effects of age, years of schooling, number of sexual partners, use of condoms, and history of STD, homosexuals were not found to be at increased risk of previous HAV exposure than heterosexuals (OR 1.1; 95% CI 0.7-1.9). Independent predictors of the likelihood of anti-HAV seropositivity among homosexuals and heterosexuals were: age older than 35 years and positive syphilis serology which is likely a proxy of lifestyles that increase the risk of faecal-oral infections. These findings do not support a higher risk in homosexual men but could suggest a role for the vaccination of susceptible patients attending STD clinics. (+info)