Infectious canine hepatitis: animal model for viral-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation.
The objective of this study was to characterize the hemostatic defect in dogs with infectious canine hepatitis (ICH), a naturally occurring viral disease of dogs. Five littermate dogs were inoculated with 10(3) TCID50 of ICH virus intravenously. Two littermates were controls. The clinicopathologic manifestations of ICH were fever, depression, anorexia, hematemesis, melena, widespread mucocutaneous petechiae, prolonged bleeding from venipunctures, faceial edema, leukopenia, and proteinuria. The hemostatic defect of ICH was characterized by thrombocytopenia, abnormal platelet function, prolonged one-stage prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, normal thrombin times, depressed factor VIII activity, and increased fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products. These findings suggested that the central pathologic mechanism of the abnormal hemostasis in ICH was disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). ICH is an example of DIC induced by viral infection. This disease is a suitable model for investigation of the detection, pathogenesis, and therapy of DIC. (+info)
Diagnosis of infectious canine hepatitis virus (CAV-1) infection in puppies with encephalopathy.
Nine weaned Labrador Retriever puppies from a litter of 11 were presented with signs of acute central nervous system (CNS) disease that included ataxia and blindness. All puppies died. Gross examination of tissues from 2 puppies revealed regionally diffuse hemorrhages in the brain stem and swollen hemorrhagic lymph nodes. Light microscopic examination of hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissues showed numerous large, basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies within CNS vascular endothelium and occasionally in individual hepatocytes. Immunohistochemical staining of the tissue was positive using an antibody against canine adenovirus-1. Virus isolation for infectious canine hepatitis virus was achieved using inoculated cell cultures. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of DNA from cell culture material revealed shared homology with other mammalian adenoviruses. (+info)
Augmented induction of antigen-specific cytotoxic T cell responses against canine hepatitis by co-immunization with pVAX1-CpG-Loop and adjuvants in BALB/c mice.
The objective of this study was to obtain better antigen specific cytotoxic T cell responses in vivo. We examined the augmented induction of antigen-specific cytotoxic T cell responses to co-administration of oligonucleotides (CpG-ODN), dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide (DDA), and Lipofectamine 2000 with a DNA vaccine (pVAX1-CpG-Loop) and boosting with pVAX1-CpG-Loop in BALB/c mice. The results show that Loop protein-specific T cell proliferation, cytotoxic T cell activity, and the production of CD8+ T cells and IFN-gamma were enhanced after co-immunization of mice with adjuvants and pVAX1-CpG-Loop. We demonstrated that significant T cell-mediated immune responses were induced in the mice with the help of DDA, CpG-ODN and Lipofectamine 2000. (+info)
Characterization of a canine homolog of hepatitis C virus.
Infectious canine hepatitis associated with prednisone treatment.
An 11-week-old, female Alaskan husky dog housed outdoors in the Yukon, Canada, was diagnosed with infectious canine hepatitis. The predisposing factors in this puppy for such a rare disease included inappropriate vaccination program, potential contact with endemic wildlife, and immunosuppression due to prednisone treatment. (+info)
Immunohistochemical detection of canine adenovirus in paraffin sections of liver.
An avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase procedure was optimized for detection of canine adenoviral antigens in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver. Long-term stability of viral antigen was shown by successful demonstration of virus in liver tissue preserved up to six years from dogs with infectious canine hepatitis. This immunohistochemical stain was applied to sections from livers with a wide range of inflammatory lesions. Examination of sections from 53 dogs yielded five livers with small amounts of adenovirus. An additional virus-positive liver was identified from a dog with no hepatic inflammation. Although a cause and effect relationship remains to be determined, these findings suggest a possible connection between canine adenovirus and spontaneous chronic hepatitis. (+info)