(1/199) Prevention of hepatitis A through active or passive immunization: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).
Routine vaccination of children is the most effective way to reduce hepatitis A incidence nationwide over time. Since licensure of hepatitis A vaccine in 1995, this strategy has been implemented incrementally, starting with the recommendation of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) in 1996 to vaccinate children living in communities with the highest rates of infection and disease. These updated recommendations represent the next phase of this hepatitis A immunization strategy. Vaccination of children living in states and communities with consistently elevated rates of hepatitis A will provide protection from disease and is expected to reduce the overall incidence of hepatitis A. This report updates the ACIP's 1996 recommendations on the prevention of hepatitis A through immunization (MMWR 1996;45:[No. RR-151) and includes a) new data about the epidemiology of hepatitis A; b) recent findings about the effectiveness of community-based hepatitis A vaccination programs; and c) recommendations for the routine vaccination of children in states, counties, and communities with rates that are twice the 1987-1997 national average or greater (i.e., > or = 20 cases per 100,000 population) and consideration of routine vaccination of children in states, counties, and communities with rates exceeding the 1987-1997 national average (i.e., > or = 10 but <20 cases per 100,000 population). Unchanged in this report are previous recommendations regarding the vaccination of persons in groups at increased risk for hepatitis A or its adverse consequences and recommendations regarding the use of immune globulin for protection against hepatitis A. (+info)
(2/199) Immunogenicity and safety of hepatitis A vaccine in liver and renal transplant recipients.
Organ transplant recipients with chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus infection may be at increased risk of fulminant hepatitis A. Liver transplant (LTX) recipients, renal transplant (RTX) recipients, and healthy controls received 2 doses of hepatitis A vaccine 6 months apart. Anti-hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) seroconversion after the primary dose occurred in 41% of the LTX patients, 24% of the RTX patients, and 90% of the controls. After the booster dose, the respective rates were 97%, 72%, and 100% (P<.001). RTX patients also had significantly lower geometric mean titers (GMTs) of anti-HAV than LTX patients and controls. In the RTX group, the seroconversion rate and GMT were inversely associated with the number of immunosuppressive drugs received by the patients. The vaccine was well tolerated. Hepatitis A vaccine can be recommended to LTX and RTX patients, but the patients should receive a full course of 2 doses before imminent exposure. (+info)
(3/199) Interference of antibody production to hepatitis B surface antigen in a combination hepatitis A/hepatitis B vaccine.
A randomized trial comparing 3 manufacturing consistency lots of a combination hepatitis A/hepatitis B vaccine to each other and to hepatitis A vaccine and hepatitis B vaccine given separately and concurrently was done to evaluate safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity. Healthy volunteers >/=11 years of age were divided into 4 groups. Each of 3 groups received a separate consistency lot of the combination vaccine, and 1 group received separate but concurrent injections of hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccines. Injections were given at weeks 0 and 24. The combination vaccine was generally well tolerated. The hepatitis A portion of the combination vaccine produced clinically acceptable high seropositivity rates 4 and 52 weeks after the first injection. The hepatitis B portion of the vaccine did not produce clinically acceptable seropositivity rates 4 weeks after the second injection. Lack of antibody production may be attributed, at least in part, to immunologic interference. (+info)
(4/199) The changing epidemiology of hepatitis A in children and the consideration of active immunization in Korea.
Currently, Korea is a low endemicity country for HAV, especially in children. However, recent reports of hepatitis A outbreaks show that there has been a shift of disease incidence to adolescents and young adults, with 2 cases of acute liver failure in one reported outbreak. We need to study the immune status for HAV in order to provide information for the establishment of preventive measures and possible consequences of HAV in Korea. A total of 334 infants, children and adolescents less than 20 years of age living in rural areas of Kyonggi Province, Korea were evaluated for anti-HAV immune status in 1996. Five hundred and eighty-four primary school children living in the same area were separately evaluated for the natural seroconversion rate between 1993 and follow-up samples taken in 1996. Anti-HAV IgG antibody was measured by enzyme immunoassay (HAVAB EIA kit, Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, Illinois, USA). In comparison with previous reports of seroprevalence rates, our data confirmed a dramatic drop in seroprevalence rates among children and adolescents under 20 years of age living in rural areas, from over 63.8% two decades ago to 4.6% in 1996. Natural acquisition of HAV antibody in primary school children rarely occurs, registering only 0.5% during three years. Several outbreaks in young adults during 1996-1998 suggested that immunity against HAV in this population is so low that massive outbreaks are unavoidable. Teenagers and young adults, especially soldiers, who are likely to be exposed to contaminated food or water, would also have a greater risk of hepatitis A. Immunizing children with HAV vaccine as a routine schedule should also be considered in Korea in the future, particularly if the disease burden could be estimated and the cost-effectiveness of the vaccine could be proved. (+info)
(5/199) Studies of the 1996-1997 inactivated influenza vaccine among children attending day care: immunologic response, protection against infection, and clinical effectiveness.
A randomized, blinded, pilot study of influenza vaccine administered to children attending day care centers was conducted during the 1996-1997 winter. Vaccine efficacy in preventing serologically proven influenza virus infection was 0.45 (95% confidence limit [CL]: -0.02, 0.69) for influenza B and 0.31 (95% CL: -0.95, 0.73) for influenza A(H3N2). For both influenza A(H3N2) and B, children without preexisting hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody to these antigens had lower antibody responses to vaccine, were less likely to develop a serological response, and were more likely to develop serological evidence of influenza infection. Although there were no reductions in respiratory or febrile respiratory illnesses among all vaccinated children, there was a trend for reductions in such illnesses among vaccinated children with preexisting HI antibodies to influenza A(H3N2) and B. Therefore, immunologic priming in young children may be important for vaccine response and for protection against infection. Larger studies are needed in other influenza seasons to assess vaccine efficacy and clinical effectiveness. (+info)
(6/199) Factors influencing a communitywide campaign to administer hepatitis A vaccine to men who have sex with men.
OBJECTIVES: A hepatitis A outbreak among men who have sex with men (MSM) led to a publicly funded vaccination campaign. We evaluated the MSM community's response. METHODS: A cohort of MSM from 5 community sites was surveyed. RESULTS: Thirty-four (19%) of 178 potential vaccine candidates received the vaccine during the campaign. We found a linear relation between the number of exposures to campaign information and the likelihood of vaccination (P < .001). Vaccination was independently associated with awareness of the outbreak and the vaccine, having had sexual relations with men for 12 years or longer, having recently consulted a physician, and routinely reading a local gay newspaper. CONCLUSIONS: The difficult task of vaccinating MSM can be aided by repetitive promotional messages, especially via the gay media. (+info)
(7/199) Hepatitis A: old and new.
The hepatitis A virus (HAV), a picornavirus, is a common cause of hepatitis worldwide. Spread of infection is generally person to person or by oral intake after fecal contamination of skin or mucous membranes; less commonly, there is fecal contamination of food or water. Hepatitis A is endemic in developing countries, and most residents are exposed in childhood. In contrast, the adult population in developed countries demonstrates falling rates of exposure with improvements in hygiene and sanitation. The export of food that cannot be sterilized, from countries of high endemicity to areas with low rates of infection, is a potentially important source of infection. After ingestion and uptake from the gastrointestinal tract, the virus replicates in the liver and is excreted into the bile. Cellular immune responses to the virus lead to destruction of infected hepatocytes with consequent development of symptoms and signs of disease. Humoral immune responses are the basis for diagnostic serologic assays. Acute HAV infection is clinically indistinguishable from other causes of acute viral hepatitis. In young children the disease is often asymptomatic, whereas in older children and adults there may be a range of clinical manifestations from mild, anicteric infection to fulminant hepatic failure. Clinical variants include prolonged, relapsing, and cholestatic forms. Management of the acute illness is supportive, and complete recovery without sequelae is the usual outcome. Research efforts during World War II led to the development of passive immunoprophylaxis. Pooled immune serum globulin is efficacious in the prevention and attenuation of disease in exposed individuals. More recently, active immunoprophylaxis by vaccination has been accomplished. Future eradication of this disease can now be contemplated. (+info)
(8/199) Randomized, double-blind study in healthy adults to assess the boosting effect of Vaqta or Havrix after a single dose of Havrix.
A randomized, double-blind, multicenter study was conducted to investigate the boosting effect of Vaqta or Havrix in 537 healthy adults 18-53 years of age who had received a single dose of Havrix either 24 or 52 weeks earlier. Subjects were randomized in a 2 : 1 ratio to receive either Vaqta or Havrix for their second dose of vaccine and followed for clinical reactions for 14 days after dose 2 was administered. Serum samples were collected immediately before dose 2 was administered and again 4 weeks later and evaluated for hepatitis A antibody (modified hepatitis A virus antibody assay). The booster response rate after administration of the second dose of either vaccine was similar (86.1% for Vaqta vs. 80.1% for Havrix). The geometric mean titers were also similar: 3274 mIU/mL (95% confidence interval [CI], 2776-3858) for Vaqta versus 2423 mIU/mL (95% CI, 1911-3074) for Havrix. The proportion of subjects who reported > or =1 injection-site adverse experiences was lower in the patients receiving Vaqta than in those receiving Havrix (36.6% vs. 59.7%; P<.001). The results of this study indicate that a regimen of Havrix followed by Vaqta is generally well tolerated and highly immunogenic. (+info)