Caspase-1 is not involved in experimental hepatitis in mouse.
Experimental hepatitis induced by tumor necrosis factor in D-(+)-galactosamine-sensitized mice or by an agonistic anti-Fas antibody in normal mice is accompanied by dramatic apoptosis of hepatocytes. Apoptosis is the final result of activation of a cascade of caspases. We used caspase-1-/- mice, generated by gene targeting, to study the role of this protease in TNF- and anti-Fas-induced lethal hepatitis. We found that mutant mice exhibited the typical caspase-1-/- phenotype, since they resisted to a lethal injection of LPS and released no interleukin-1beta in the circulation, in contrast to wild-type littermates. When caspase-1-/- mice were challenged with different doses of tumor necrosis factor/D-(+)-galactosamine or with anti-Fas, no increased survival was observed compared with control mice. Furthermore, apoptosis in the livers of these mice and serum levels of alanine aminotransferase were not reduced. These data indicate that caspase-1 deficiency does not lead to reduced apoptosis in these models, either because caspase-1 is irrelevant in this model or because of functional redundancy. (+info)
Leucocyte migration inhibition with inner and outer membranes of mitochondria and insoluble hepatocyte surface membranes prepared from rat liver in patients with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis.
Patients with chronic liver disease were tested for delayed hypersensitivity to the outer and the inner membranes of mitochondria (OMM and IMM) and the insoluble hepatocyte-surface membranes (IHSM), prepared from rat livers, by means of leucocyte migration inhibition technique. Positive reaction to OMM was found in 37% of patients with chronic persistent hepatitis and 35% of those with chronic active hepatitis and 43% of those with liver cirrhosis (P less than 0-05). That to IMM was 55%, 43% and 36% (P less than 0-05) and to IHSM was 37%, 47% and 45% respectively (P less than 0-05). IHSM was found to contain liver-specific components and patients with positive response to IHSM did not reveal at all a positive reaction to rat renal cell-surface membranes. The incidence of positive response to IHSM was significantly higher (54-2%) in patients with the present or previous infection with HBAg than in HBAg-non-infected patients (21-4%) (P less than 0-05). And there seemed to be a good correlation between a degree of cellular response to purified HBsAg and that to IHSM in these HBAg-infected patients. No correlation, however, was found between that to purified HBsAg and that to OMM or IMM in the same patients. This suggested that the cellular response to either HBsAg or IHSM, both related closely, may play a role in the perpetuation of chronic liver disease. (+info)
Glucuronidation of drugs by hepatic microsomes derived from healthy and cirrhotic human livers.
Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that the decrease in drug biotransformation in hepatic failure depends on the metabolic pathways involved. To test whether glucuronidation reactions supported by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases are differentially affected in such conditions, we investigated the in vitro glucuronidation of four selected drugs and xenobiotics (zidovudine, oxazepam, lamotrigine, and umbelliferone) by using microsomes from human healthy and unhealthy (cirrhosis, hepatitis) livers as enzyme sources. Theses substances are glucuronidated by several UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms. Lidocaine N-deethylation activity measured concomitantly was used as a positive control, because the inhibition of this reaction in patients with hepatic diseases is well documented. The metabolic clearances of zidovudine and lidocaine were decreased significantly in liver cirrhosis (0.17 versus 0.37 microliter/min/mg protein and 0.40 versus 2.73 microliter/min/mg protein, respectively) as a consequence of a decrease of their corresponding Vmax of metabolism. By contrast, the metabolic clearances of oxazepam, umbelliferone, and lamotrigine glucuronidation remained unchanged. Previous studies reported that the in vivo oral clearances of zidovudine and lidocaine were decreased by 70% and 60%, respectively, in cirrhotic livers, whereas those of lamotrigine and oxazepam were not affected. Consequently, it is likely that the in vitro metabolic data, which support the in vivo results, therefore could contribute to reasonably predict the level of impairment of hepatic clearance in patients with liver cirrhosis. (+info)
High prevalence of TT virus infection in healthy children and adults and in patients with liver disease in Taiwan.
A newly identified DNA virus, named TT virus (TTV), was found to be related to transfusion-associated hepatitis. We conducted the following experiments to evaluate its pathogenic role in liver disease and potential modes of transmission. We used PCR to detect TTV DNA in serum. The rates of TTV viremia in 13 patients with idiopathic acute hepatitis, 14 patients with idiopathic fulminant hepatitis, 22 patients with chronic hepatitis, and 19 patients with cirrhosis of the liver were 46, 64, 55, and 63%, respectively, and were not significantly different from those in 50 healthy control subjects (53%). PCR products derived from seven patients with liver disease and three healthy controls were cloned and then subjected to phylogenetic analyses, which failed to link a virulent strain of TTV to severe liver disease. TTV infection was further assessed in an additional 148 subjects with normal liver biochemical tests, including 30 newborns (sera collected from the umbilical cord), 23 infants, 16 preschool children, 21 individuals of an age prior to that of sexual experience (aged 6 to 15 years), 15 young adults (aged under 30 years), and 43 individuals older than 30 years. The rates of TTV viremia were 0, 17, 25, 33, 47, and 54%, respectively. These findings suggest that TTV is transmitted mainly via nonparenteral daily contact and frequently occurs very early in life and that TTV infection does not have a significant effect on liver disease. (+info)
Influence of sex on clinical features, laboratory findings, and complications of typhoid fever.
Clinical features, laboratory findings, and complications of typhoid fever were correlated with sex through a retrospective case note review of 102 hospitalized culture-positive patients in Durban, South Africa. Intestinal perforation (P = 0.04), occult blood losses in stools (P = 0.04), and a mild reticulocytosis in the absence of hemolysis (P = 0.02) occurred more frequently in males than in females. A single pretreatment Widal O antibody titer > or = 1:640 was also a statistically significant occurrence in males (P = 0. 006). Female patients were significantly more severely ill (P = 0.0004) on admission and had chest signs consistent with bronchopneumonia (P = 0.04), transverse myelitis (P = 0.04), abnormal liver function test results (P = 0.0003), and abnormal findings in urinalyses (P = 0.02). Typhoid hepatitis (P = 0.04) and glomerulonephritis (P = 0.02) were present significantly more frequently in females. Whether these differences were due to differences in host's immune response to acute infection need to be determined in a prospective study. (+info)
Screening of newborn infants for cholestatic hepatobiliary disease with tandem mass spectrometry.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of screening for cholestatic hepatobiliary disease and extrahepatic biliary atresia by using tandem mass spectrometry to measure conjugated bile acids in dried blood spots obtained from newborn infants at 7-10 days of age for the Guthrie test. SETTING: Three tertiary referral clinics and regional neonatal screening laboratories. DESIGN: Unused blood spots from the Guthrie test were retrieved for infants presenting with cholestatic hepatobiliary disease and from the two cards stored on either side of each card from an index child. Concentrations of conjugated bile acids measured by tandem mass spectrometry in the two groups were compared. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Concentrations of glycodihydroxycholanoates, glycotrihydroxycholanoates, taurodihydroxycholanoates, and taurotrihydroxycholanoates. Receiver operator curves were plotted to determine which parameter (or combination of parameters) would best predict the cases of cholestatic hepatobiliary disease and extrahepatic biliary atresia. The sensitivity and specificity at a selection of cut off values for each bile acid species and for total bile acid concentrations for the detection of the two conditions were calculated. RESULTS: 218 children with cholestatic hepatobiliary disease were eligible for inclusion in the study. Two children without a final diagnosis and five who presented at <14 days of age were excluded. Usable blood spots were obtained from 177 index children and 708 comparison children. Mean concentrations of all four bile acid species were significantly raised in children with cholestatic hepatobiliary disease and extrahepatic biliary atresia compared with the unaffected children (P<0.0001). Of 177 children with cholestatic hepatobiliary disease, 104 (59%) had a total bile acid concentration >33 micromol/l (97.5th centile value for comparison group). Of the 61 with extrahepatic biliary atresia, 47 (77%) had total bile acid concentrations >33 micromol/l. Taurotrihydroxycholanoate and total bile acid concentrations were the best predictors of both conditions. For all cholestatic hepatobiliary disease, a cut off level of total bile acid concentration of 30 micromol/l gave a sensitivity of 62% and a specificity of 96%, while the corresponding values for extrahepatic biliary atresia were 79% and 96%. CONCLUSION: Most children who present with extrahepatic biliary atresia and other forms of cholestatic hepatobiliary disease have significantly raised concentrations of conjugated bile acids as measured by tandem mass spectrometry at the time when samples are taken for the Guthrie test. Unfortunately the separation between the concentrations in these infants and those in the general population is not sufficient to make mass screening for cholestatic hepatobiliary disease a feasible option with this method alone. (+info)
Occurrence of hepatitis and hepatitis B surface antigen in adult patients with acute leukemia.
Fifty-eight adult patients with acute leukemia were screened at the onset of the disease for hepatitis B antigen (HBSAg) in the serum, and during the course of the disease for the development of hepatitis B. One patient had a positive test for HBSAg by the radioimmunoassay technique only at the time leukemia was diagnosed; this patient had received transfusions some years before. In six patients icteric hepatitis B developed; five recovered completely and one died of leukemia during the course of hepatitis. All patients in whom hepatitis developed had received transfusions as a part of supportive therapy for leukemia. The hepatitis risk for patients who received transfusions of blood found to be negative for HBSAg by counterimmunoelectrophoresis was 0.26 percent per unit of blood administered. (+info)
Hepatic capillariasis in children: report of 3 cases in Brazil.
Capillaria hepatica is a helminth that may cause an extremely rare condition of parasitic hepatitis. Only 29 cases have been published, 2 of them in Brazil. We report here 3 cases of children in Brazil with massive hepatic capillariasis who presented the characteristic triad of this type of infection, i.e., persistent fever, hepatomegaly, and eosinophilia. The diagnosis was made by liver biopsy. All children responded well after treatment with thiabendazole (case 1), albendazole (case 3), and albendazole in combination with a corticoid (case 2). Case 1 has been followed-up for 24 years, an event not previously reported in the literature. (+info)