Effects of unfractionated heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin, and heparinoid on thromboelastographic assay of blood coagulation.
Thromboelastography (TEG) has been used increasingly as an intraoperative hemostasis monitoring device. Low-molecular-weight heparins are given increasingly to reduce the development of antibodies against the heparin-platelet factor 4 complex, and heparinoids are given to patients who have developed the antibody. We studied the effect of unfractionated heparin, a low-molecular-weight heparin (enoxaparin sodium [Lovenox]), and a heparinoid (danaparoid sodium [Orgaran]) on blood clotting assayed with TEG (TEG clotting) in vitro and the efficacy of protamine sulfate and heparinase for reversing the effect. Heparin, enoxaparin, and danaparoid all caused a dose-dependent inhibition of TEG clotting of normal blood. Concentrations of enoxaparin and danaparoid that totally inhibited TEG clotting only minimally prolonged the activated partial thromboplastin time. While inhibition of TEG clotting by heparin and enoxaparin was reversed by protamine sulfate and heparinase, inhibition by danaparoid was reversed only by heparinase. Abnormal TEG clotting was observed in patients receiving enoxaparin whose plasma level of the drug was more than 0.1 antiXa U/mL. However, the degree of TEG abnormality did not always coincide with plasma levels of the drug. (+info)
Low-molecular-weight heparins and heparinoids in acute ischemic stroke : a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Low-molecular-weight heparins and heparinoids (LMWHs) are superior to unfractionated heparin in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and acute coronary syndromes. We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to examine the safety and efficacy of LMWH in acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: Randomized, controlled, and nonconfounded trials of LMWH in acute ischemic stroke were identified from the Cochrane Library (version 2, 1999), previous systematic reviews, and a review of publication quality relating to acute stroke trials. The authors each independently extracted data by treatment group and assessed trial quality using Cochrane Collaboration criteria. RESULTS: Eleven completed RCTs involving 3048 patients were identified; data were available from 10 of these. Four trials explicitly excluded patients with presumed cardioembolic stroke. Treatment with LMWH was associated with significant reductions in prospectively identified deep vein thrombosis (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.96) and symptomatic pulmonary embolism (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.69) and with increased major extracranial hemorrhage (OR 2.17, 95% 1.10 to 4.28). Nonsignificant increases in end-of-treatment (OR 1.20, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.69) and end-of-trial (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.32) case fatality and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (OR 1.77, 95% CI 0. 95 to 3.31) were observed. End-of-trial death and disability was nonsignificantly reduced (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.06). CONCLUSIONS: ++LMWHs reduce venous thromboembolic events in patients with acute ischemic stroke and increase the risk of extracranial bleeding. A nonsignificant reduction in combined death and disability and nonsignificant increases in case fatality and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage were also observed. On the basis of the current evidence, LMWH should not be used in the routine management of patients with ischemic stroke. (+info)
New aspects of the treatment of nephrotic syndrome.
The nephrotic syndrome, caused by glomerulonephritis, diabetes mellitus, or amyloidosis, is still a therapeutic challenge. Newer therapeutic approaches may be sought in the fields of immunosuppression, nonspecific supportive measures, heparinoid administration, and removal of a supposed glomerular basement membrane toxic factor. In immunosuppression, the newer drugs now used in organ transplantation (cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil) can also be used in the treatment of glomerulonephritis. In nonspecific supportive treatment, angiotensin II receptor antagonists are now used in addition to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Positive effects of hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors on the nephrotic syndrome have not yet been proven. Cyclooxygenase II inhibitors must be tested but probably have too many renal side effects, similar to those of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Heparinoids or glycosaminoglycans serve as polyanions and thus have protective effects on the negative charge of the glomerular basement membrane. They can now be administered as oral medications. The removal of a supposed glomerular basement membrane toxic factor that induces proteinuria has been attempted for 20 yr and now is usually performed using immunoadsorption. Especially in cases of recurrent nephrotic syndrome after renal transplantation for patients with glomerulonephritis, this approach has been successful in decreasing proteinuria, although in most cases its effect is not lasting but must be continuously renewed. (+info)
Activation of human macrophages by allogeneic islets preparations: inhibition by AOP-RANTES and heparinoids.
During transplantation, pancreatic islets release chemokines which promote macrophage attraction, hampering engraftment of islets. The aim of this study was to modulate chemotaxis and the immune response of human macrophages induced by islets. Human monocyte-derived macrophages of healthy subjects were exposed to supernatants of human islets. Chemotaxis, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) release were evaluated. To modulate migration, human macrophages were incubated in the presence of aminooxypentane-regulated on activation, normal, T-cell expressed, and secreted (AOP-RANTES), a potent antagonist of CCR5. Chemotactic activity of islets supernatant was modulated by the addition of heparin or heparinoids [pentosan and calix[8S]arene (C8S)]. AOP-RANTES significantly reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, macrophage chemotaxis and cytokine release induced by islets supernatant. The chemotactic index was reduced from 3.05 +/- 0.27 to 0.71 +/- 12, TNF-alpha from 1205 +/- 52 to 202 +/- 12 pg/ml, and IL-1beta from 234 +/- 12 to 10 +/- 6 pg/ml. The trapping of chemokines by heparinoids reduced the chemotactic activity of islets supernatant from 3.05 +/- 0.27 to 1.2 +/- 0.1 with heparin or pentosan and to 1.72 +/- 0.22 with C8S, and also decreased the TNF-alpha release by human macrophages from 1205 +/- 35 to 1000 +/- 26 (C8S), 250 +/- 21 (heparin) and 320 +/- 19 (pentosan) pg/ml, and IL-1beta from 234 +/- 13 to 151 +/- 5 (C8S), 50 +/- 3 (heparin) and 57 +/- 4 (pentosan) pg/ml. In conclusion, AOP-RANTES and heparinoids inhibit human macrophage activation and migration induced by islets supernatant. (+info)
"Heparin-free" cardiopulmonary bypass: first reported use of heparinoid (Org 10172) to provide anticoagulation for cardiopulmonary bypass.
Org 10172 provided adequate anticoagulation for this patient. An excellent correlation between anti-factor Xa activity and ACT was observed at the doses used for CPB. If high-dose Org 10172 is used, these data suggest that it may be possible to circumvent the measurement of anti-factor Xa activity by using the ACT as an index of this heparinoid's anticoagulant effect. Because postoperative bleeding may be excessive, however, development of a method of reversal of Org 10172 is desirable. Although the optimal ACT, dose, plasma concentration, and means of reversal (e.g., protamine vs. heparinase) remains to be determined, heparinoids provide an alternate means of anticoagulation for CPB in patients unable to receive standard heparin. (+info)
The influence of Org 10172, a low molecular weight heparinoid, on antipyrine metabolism and the effect of enzyme induction on the response to Org 10172.
1. We have investigated the effect of repeated s.c. Org 10172 (a low molecular weight heparinoid; Lomoparan) treatment (1000 anti-Xa units twice daily for 5 days) on antipyrine (500 mg orally) metabolism, and the effect of enzyme induction by pentobarbitone (100 mg for 12 days) on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Org 10172 following an intravenous bolus injection of 3250 anti-Xa units. 2. Org 10172 treatment caused a small increase in the formation rates of all antipyrine metabolites (P less than 0.05), while the overall kinetics of antipyrine did not change significantly. 3. Oxidative enzyme induction by pentobarbitone, as demonstrated by an increased clearance of antipyrine, was associated with an increase in the area under the anti-thrombin activity vs time curve (P less than 0.05). No influence was seen on the kinetics of plasma anti-Xa and thrombin generation inhibiting (TGI) activity. 4. The pharmacodynamics of Org 10172, as determined by clotting tests, was not influenced by enzyme induction. 5. The clinical relevance of these observations is likely to be limited. (+info)
Heparan sulfate on activated glomerular endothelial cells and exogenous heparinoids influence the rolling and adhesion of leucocytes.
BACKGROUND: Proliferative glomerulonephritides are characterized by the influx of leucocytes. Heparan sulfate (HS) plays an important role in the recruitment, rolling and firm adhesion of leucocytes to activated endothelium. Recently, we have shown the importance of HS on activated mouse glomerular endothelial cells (mGEnC-1) for the firm adhesion of leucocytes in a static adhesion assay. In the present study, we evaluated the role of HS on glomerular endothelial cells and the effect of adding heparinoids on the leucocyte-glomerular endothelium interaction under dynamic flow conditions. METHODS: The number of rolling and firmly adhering leucocytes, and the rolling velocity of leucocytes was determined on a monolayer of unactivated or TNF-alpha-activated mGEnC-1 under dynamic flow conditions using physiological relevant shear stress rates in a flow chamber system. Furthermore, the effects of removal of HS on TNF-alpha-activated mGEnC-1 by heparinase III treatment, and of different concentrations of heparin, tinzaparin and HS, on the rolling and adhesion of leucocytes were evaluated. RESULTS: At the calculated physiological shear stress rate of 0.8 dynes/cm2 the number of rolling and firmly adhering leucocytes to mGEnC-1 increased 2-fold after activation with TNF-alpha, whereas the rolling velocity of the leucocytes decreased 2-fold. Addition of heparin, tinzaparin or HS, and the removal of HS on mGEnC-1 reduced the number of leucocytes rolling and adhering to activated mGEnC-1 about 2-3-fold, while the rolling velocity increased more than 2-fold. CONCLUSIONS: HS on activated glomerular endothelial cells is important for the interaction with leucocytes under flow conditions, while exogenous heparinoids interfere with this interaction. These results suggest that supplementary treatment of proliferative glomerulonephritides with heparinoids is an interesting option to pursue. (+info)
Inhibition of CXCR4-mediated breast cancer metastasis: a potential role for heparinoids?
PURPOSE: The pattern of breast cancer metastasis may be determined by interactions between CXCR4 on breast cancer cells and CXCL12 within normal tissues. Glycosaminoglycans bind chemokines for presentation to responsive cells. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that soluble heparinoid glycosaminoglycan molecules can disrupt the normal response to CXCL12, thereby reducing the metastasis of CXCR4-expressing cancer cells. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Inhibition of the response of CXCR4-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells to CXCL12 was assessed by measurement of calcium flux and chemotaxis. Radioligand binding was also assessed to quantify the potential of soluble heparinoids to prevent specific receptor ligation. The human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and a range of sublines were assessed for their sensitivity to heparinoid-mediated inhibition of chemotaxis. A model of hematogenous breast cancer metastasis was established, and the potential of clinically relevant doses of heparinoids to inhibit CXCL12 presentation and metastatic disease was assessed. RESULTS: Unfractionated heparin and the low-molecular-weight heparin tinzaparin inhibited receptor ligation and the response of CXCR4-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells and human breast cancer cell lines to CXCL12. Heparin also removed CXCL12 from its normal site of expression on the surface of parenchymal cells in the murine lung. Both heparin and two clinically relevant dose regimens of tinzaparin reduced hematogenous metastatic spread of human breast cancer cells to the lung in a murine model. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically relevant concentrations of tinzaparin inhibit the interaction between CXCL12 and CXCR4 and may be useful to prevent chemokine-driven breast cancer metastasis. (+info)