Binding of the G domains of laminin alpha1 and alpha2 chains and perlecan to heparin, sulfatides, alpha-dystroglycan and several extracellular matrix proteins.
The C-terminal G domain of the mouse laminin alpha2 chain consists of five lamin-type G domain (LG) modules (alpha2LG1 to alpha2LG5) and was obtained as several recombinant fragments, corresponding to either individual modules or the tandem arrays alpha2LG1-3 and alpha2LG4-5. These fragments were compared with similar modules from the laminin alpha1 chain and from the C-terminal region of perlecan (PGV) in several binding studies. Major heparin-binding sites were located on the two tandem fragments and the individual alpha2LG1, alpha2LG3 and alpha2LG5 modules. The binding epitope on alpha2LG5 could be localized to a cluster of lysines by site-directed mutagenesis. In the alpha1 chain, however, strong heparin binding was found on alpha1LG4 and not on alpha1LG5. Binding to sulfatides correlated to heparin binding in most but not all cases. Fragments alpha2LG1-3 and alpha2LG4-5 also bound to fibulin-1, fibulin-2 and nidogen-2 with Kd = 13-150 nM. Both tandem fragments, but not the individual modules, bound strongly to alpha-dystroglycan and this interaction was abolished by EDTA but not by high concentrations of heparin and NaCl. The binding of perlecan fragment PGV to alpha-dystroglycan was even stronger and was also not sensitive to heparin. This demonstrated similar binding repertoires for the LG modules of three basement membrane proteins involved in cell-matrix interactions and supramolecular assembly. (+info)
Frequent silencing of the GPC3 gene in ovarian cancer cell lines.
GPC3 encodes a glypican integral membrane protein and is mutated in the Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome. Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome, an X-linked condition, is characterized by pre- and postnatal overgrowth as well as by various other abnormalities, including increased risk of embryonal tumors. The GPC3 gene is located at Xq26, a region frequently deleted in advanced ovarian cancers. To determine whether GPC3 is a tumor suppressor in ovarian neoplasia, we studied its expression and mutational status in 13 ovarian cancer cell lines. No mutations were found in GPC3, but its expression was lost in four (31%) of the cell lines analyzed. In an of the cases where GPC3 expression was lost, the GPC3 promoter was hypermethylated, as demonstrated by Southern analysis. Expression of GPC3 was restored by treatment of the cells with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. A colony-forming assay confirmed that ectopic GPC3 expression inhibited the growth of ovarian cancer cell lines. Our results show that GPC3, a gene involved in the control of organ growth, is frequently inactivated in a subset of ovarian cancers and suggest that it may function as a tumor suppressor in the ovary. (+info)
Binding of beta-VLDL to heparan sulfate proteoglycans requires lipoprotein lipase, whereas ApoE only modulates binding affinity.
The binding of beta-VLDL to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) has been reported to be stimulated by both apoE and lipoprotein lipase (LPL). In the present study we investigated the effect of the isoform and the amount of apoE per particle, as well as the role of LPL on the binding of beta-VLDL to HSPG. Therefore, we isolated beta-VLDL from transgenic mice, expressing either APOE*2(Arg158-->Cys) or APOE*3-Leiden (E2-VLDL and E3Leiden-VLDL, respectively), as well as from apoE-deficient mice containing no apoE at all (Enull-VLDL). In the absence of LPL, the binding affinity and maximal binding capacity of all beta-VLDL samples for HSPG-coated microtiter plates was very low. Addition of LPL to this cell-free system resulted in a 12- to 55-fold increase in the binding affinity and a 7- to 15-fold increase in the maximal binding capacity (Bmax). In the presence of LPL, the association constant (Ka) tended to increase in the order Enull-VLDL+info)
Recombinant domain IV of perlecan binds to nidogens, laminin-nidogen complex, fibronectin, fibulin-2 and heparin.
Domain IV of mouse perlecan, which consists of 14 immunoglobulin superfamily (IG) modules, was prepared from recombinant human cell culture medium in the form of two fragments, IV-1 (IG2-9, 100 kDa) and IV-2 (IG10-15, 66 kDa). Both fragments bound to a heparin column, being eluted at ionic strengths either below (IV-2) or above (IV-1) physiological level, and could thus be readily purified. Electron microscopy demonstrated an elongated shape (20-25 nm), and folding into a native structure was indicated by immunological assay and CD spectroscopy. Solid-phase and surface plasmon resonance assays demonstrated strong binding of fragment IV-1 to fibronectin, nidogen-1, nidogen-2 and the laminin-1-nidogen-1 complex, with Kd values in the range 4-17 nM. The latter binding apparently occurs through nidogen-1, as shown by the formation of ternary complexes. Only moderate binding was observed for fibulin-2 and collagen IV and none for fibulin-1 and BM-40. Fragment IV-2 showed a more restricted pattern of binding, with only weaker binding to fibronectin and fibulin-2. None of these activities could be demonstrated for recombinant fragments corresponding to the N-terminal perlecan domains I to III. This indicates a special role for domain IV in the integration of perlecan into basement membranes and other extracellular structures via protein-protein interactions. (+info)
Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor interacts with mouse blastocysts independently of ErbB1: a possible role for heparan sulfate proteoglycans and ErbB4 in blastocyst implantation.
Blastocyst implantation requires molecular and cellular interactions between the uterine luminal epithelium and blastocyst trophectoderm. We have previously shown that heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is induced in the mouse luminal epithelium solely at the site of blastocyst apposition at 16:00 hours on day 4 of pregnancy prior to the attachment reaction (22:00-23:00 hours), and that HB-EGF promotes blastocyst growth, zona-hatching and trophoblast outgrowth. To delineate which EGF receptors participate in blastocyst activation, the toxicity of chimeric toxins composed of HB-EGF or TGF-(&agr;) coupled to Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) were used as measures of receptor expression. TGF-(&agr;) or HB-EGF binds to EGF-receptor (ErbB1), while HB-EGF, in addition, binds to ErbB4. The results indicate that ErbB1 is inefficient in mediating TGF-(&agr;)-PE or HB-EGF-PE toxicity as follows: (i) TGF-(&agr;)-PE was relatively inferior in killing blastocysts, 100-fold less than HB-EGF-PE, (ii) analysis of blastocysts isolated from cross-bred egfr+/- mice demonstrated that HB-EGF-PE, but not TGF-(&agr;)-PE, killed egfr-/- blastocysts, and (iii) blastocysts that survived TGF-(&agr;)-PE were nevertheless killed by HB-EGF-PE. HB-EGF-PE toxicity was partially mediated by cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), since a peptide corresponding to the heparin-binding domain of HB-EGF as well as heparitinase treatment protected the blastocysts from the toxic effects of HB-EGF-PE by about 40%. ErbB4 is a candidate for being an HB-EGF-responsive receptor since RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that day 4 mouse blastocysts express two different erbB4 isoforms and immunostaining with anti-ErbB4 antibodies confirmed that ErbB4 protein is expressed at the apical surface of the trophectoderm cells. It is concluded that (i) HB-EGF interacts with the blastocyst cell surface via high-affinity receptors other than ErbB1, (ii) the HB-EGF interaction with high-affinity blastocysts receptors is regulated by heparan sulfate, and (iii) ErbB4 is a candidate for being a high-affinity receptor for HB-EGF on the surface of implantation-competent blastocysts. (+info)
Identification and characterization of ligands for L-selectin in the kidney. III. Characterization of L-selectin reactive heparan sulfate proteoglycans.
L-Selectin, a leukocyte adhesion molecule, mediates leukocyte rolling on the endothelium and plays a critical role in leukocyte recruitment at inflammatory sites as well as in lymphocyte homing. We have previously shown that L-selectin reactive chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are both expressed in the distal tubules of the kidney and that versican is one of the chondroitin sulfate-type ligands. In the present study, we characterized the heparan sulfate-type ligand(s) in more detail. The molecular sizes of HSPGs were approximately 600 kDa with core protein sizes of 160 and 180 kDa. Western blotting analysis showed that L-selectin reactive HSPGs were neither agrin nor perlecan, major basement membrane HSPGs in the kidney. The binding to L-selectin was mediated by the lectin domain of L-selectin in a Ca2+-dependent manner and required heparan sulfate side chains, but not sialic acid. To our knowledge, this is the first biochemical characterization of the L-selectin reactive heparan sulfate proteoglycan(s) in the distal tubules of the kidney. (+info)
Heparan sulfate proteoglycan expression is induced during early erythroid differentiation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells.
Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans of bone marrow (BM) stromal cells and their extracellular matrix are important components of the microenvironment of hematopoietic tissues and are involved in the interaction of hematopoietic stem and stromal cells. Although previous studies have emphasized the role of HS proteoglycan synthesis by BM stromal cells, we have recently shown that the human hematopoietic progenitor cell line TF-1 also expressed an HS proteoglycan. Immunochemical, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Northern blot analysis of this HS proteoglycan showed that it was not related to the syndecan family of HS proteoglycans or to glypican. To answer the question of whether the expression of HS proteoglycans is associated with the differentiation state of hematopoietic progenitor cells, we have analyzed the proteoglycan synthesis of several murine and human hematopoietic progenitor cell lines. Proteoglycans were isolated from metabolically labeled cells and purified by several chromatographic steps. Isolation and characterization of proteoglycans from the cell lines HEL and ELM-D, which like TF-1 cells have an immature erythroid phenotype, showed that these cells synthesize the same HS proteoglycan, previously detected in TF-1 cells, as a major proteoglycan. In contrast, cell lines of the myeloid lineage, like the myeloblastic/promyelocytic cell lines B1 and B2, do not express HS proteoglycans. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that expression of this HS proteoglycan in hematopoietic progenitor cell lines is associated with the erythroid lineage. To prove this association we have analyzed the proteoglycan expression in the nonleukemic multipotent stem cell line FDCP-Mix-A4 after induction of erythroid or granulocytic differentiation. Our data show that HS proteoglycan expression is induced during early erythroid differentiation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells. In contrast, during granulocytic differentiation, no expression of HS proteoglycans was observed. (+info)
Changes in vascular basement membrane in the endometrium of Norplant users.
Progestogen-only contraception is almost invariably associated with changes in menstrual bleeding patterns. Changes in the endometrial vasculature, and in particular an increase in vascular fragility, may contribute to this bleeding. In this study, endometrial vascular density and endothelial cell basement membrane components were examined using immunohistochemistry before and after insertion of Norplant. Endometrial vascular density was increased from a mean (+/- SEM) of 189.6 +/- 7.0 vessels/mm2 during the control cycle to 253.9 +/- 80.7 vessels/mm2 at 2-13 weeks of Norplant exposure, and to 212.7 +/- 12.9 vessels/mm2 at 14-42 weeks. During the control cycle, a mean of 161.4 +/- 4.5 vessels/mm2 stained for collagen IV (85% of all vessels), while at 2-13 weeks, 144.5 +/- 13.0 vessels/mm2 stained for collagen IV (57% of all vessels) (t ratio = 2.08, P = 0.0057). By 14-42 weeks, 71% of vessels (151.0 +/- 9.8) vessels/mm2 were surrounded by collagen IV. This was not significantly different from control values (t ratio = 2.03). Endometrial vascular laminin was also reduced following Norplant insertion, from a mean of 176.0 +/- 4.2 vessels/mm2 in the control cycle (93% of vessels), to 156.3 +/- 6.7 vessels/mm2 at 2-13 weeks of exposure (57% of vessels) (t ratio = 2.08, P = 0.01). By 14-42 weeks of exposure to Norplant, 162.5 +/- 9 vessels/mm2 (76%) stained for laminin. This was not significantly different from control values (t ratio = 2.04). Endometrial vascular heparan sulphate proteoglycan (HSPG) was reduced from 58.6 +/- 3.0 vessels/mm2 during the control cycle (31% of vessels) to 43.6 +/- 5.6 vessels/mm2 (only 17% of vessels) at 2-13 weeks (t ratio = 2.08, P = 0.025). At 14-42 weeks, only 19% of vessels stained for HSPG (41.3 +/- 5.8 vessels/mm2; t ratio = 2.04, P = 0.009). (+info)