Epidural fentanyl decreases the minimum local analgesic concentration of epidural lidocaine.
BACKGROUND: Epidural lidocaine can be used when regional anesthesia needs to be established quickly, but the effect of co-administering epidural fentanyl on the minimum local analgesic concentration (MLAC) of lidocaine is not known. We compared the MLAC of epidural lidocaine in combination with different doses of fentanyl for epidural anesthesia in adults. METHODS: One hundred and twenty patients requiring epidural analgesia were randomly allocated to receive 20 ml of one of four solutions: lidocaine, or lidocaine plus fentanyl 1 microg/ml, 2 microg/ml, or 3 microg/ml. The first patient in each group was administered 1% lidocaine weight by volume; subsequent patients received a concentration determined by the response of the previous patient to a higher or lower concentration according to up and down sequential allocation in 0.1% increments. Efficacy was assessed using a visual analog pain scale, and accepted if this was = 10 mm on a 100 mm scale within 30 minutes. The extent of motor block and of nausea and vomiting were recorded at 30 minutes after administration of the epidural solution and two hours after surgery, respectively. RESULTS: The MLAC of lidocaine in those receiving lidocaine alone was 0.785% (95%CI 0.738 - 0.864). A significant dose-dependent reduction was observed with the addition of fentanyl: the MLAC of lidocaine with fentanyl at 2 microg/ml was 0.596% (95%CI 0.537 - 0.660) and 0.387% with fentanyl at 3 microg/ml (95%CI 0.329 - 0.446, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Epidural fentanyl significantly reduces the dose of lidocaine required for effective epidural analgesia in adults without causing adverse side effects. (+info)
Anal sphincter injuries during hemorrhoidectomy: a multi center study.
Hemorrhoidectomy is the treatment of choice for patients with third or fourth-degree hemorrhoids. Although the majority of surgeons believe that surgical hemorrhoidectomy is the most effective approach with excellent results in the management of hemorrhoid disease, but hemorrhoidectomy is not a simple procedure. One of the complications of this surgery is an injury to anal sphincters that can lead to incontinency in some patients. In this study, we aimed to reveal the percentage of external and internal anal sphincter injuries in surgical hemorrhoidectomy. We prospectively enrolled 128 patients from April 2006 to February 2007. They underwent hemorrhoidectomy in three general hospitals in Tehran. All patients were in grade III or IV and underwent open hemorrhoidectomy (Milligan-Morgan). After surgery, all resected material was histopathologically examined by two expert pathologists and the results confirmed by other one if there is any discrepancy. From all specimens which sent to the pathology department 15.8% (21 Pts.) had muscle fibers that Smooth muscle fibers were seen in 80.5% (17 Pts.) of them and striated muscle fibers were found in 19.5% (4 Pts.). Although hemorrhoidectomy is a safe and effective method for treatment of hemorrhoid, but the inadvertent removal of smooth and striated muscle during open hemorrhoidectomy had raised concerns about its effects on postoperative anorectal function. (+info)
Transanal desarterialization guided by Doppler associated to anorectal repair in hemorrhoids: THD technic.