Crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever: a seroepidemiological and tick survey in the Sultanate of Oman.
In 1995 and 1996, 4 persons from the Sultanate of Oman were confirmed with clinical Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF). To assess the prevalence of CCHF virus infection in Oman, a convenience sample of imported and domestic animals from farms, abattoirs and livestock markets was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to CCHF virus. Ticks were collected from selected animals, identified, pooled by species, host and location and tested for evidence of infection with CCHF virus by antigen-capture ELISA. Serum samples from individuals working in animal and nonanimal contact-related jobs were also tested for CCHF antibodies. Serological evidence of infection was noted in 108 (22%) of 489 animals. Most of the ticks collected (618 of 912) from all species of sampled livestock were Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, a competent vector and reservoir of CCHF virus. 243 tick pools were tested for CCHF antigen, and 19 pools were positive. Of the individuals working in animal contact-related jobs, 73 (30.3%) of 241 non-Omani citizens and only 1 (2.4%) of 41 Omani citizens were CCHF antibody-positive. Butchers were more likely to have CCHF antibody than persons in other job categories. The presence of clinical disease and the serological results for animals and humans and infected Hyalomma ticks provide ample evidence of the presence of CCHF virus in yet another country in the Arabian Peninsula. (+info)
Genetic characterization of the M RNA segment of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strains, China.
We report the genetic characterization of the M RNA segment of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). Two CCHFV strains isolated in Xinjiang Province, a region endemic for CCHF in northwestern China, were studied. These strains, designated BA66019 and BA8402, were isolated in 1965 and 1984 from a CCHF patient and Hyalomma ticks, respectively. Viral RNA was extracted from suckling mouse brains infected with these two strains, amplified, and sequenced. The full-length M RNA, consisting of 5.3 kb, was determined for both strains. The coding nucleotide sequences of the two strains differed from each other by 17.5% and from the reference CCHFV strain IbAr10200 by a mean of 22%, suggesting that the genus Nairovirus comprises a group of genetically highly diverse strains. (+info)
Immunofluorescence technique using HeLa cells expressing recombinant nucleoprotein for detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.
A HeLa cell line continuously expressing recombinant nucleoprotein (rNP) of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was established by transfection with an expression vector containing the cDNA of CCHFV NP (pKS336-CCHFV-NP). These cells were used as antigens for indirect immunofluorescence (IF) to detect immunoglobulin G antibodies to CCHFV. The sensitivity and specificity of this IF technique were examined by using serum samples and were compared to those of the IF technique using CCHFV-infected Vero E6 cells (authentic antigen). Staining of the CCHFV rNP expressed in HeLa cells showed a unique granular pattern similar to that of CCHFV-infected Vero E6 cells. Positive staining could easily be distinguished from a negative result. All 13 serum samples determined to be positive by using the authentic antigen were also determined to be positive by using CCHFV rNP-expressing HeLa cells (recombinant antigen). The 108 serum samples determined to be negative by using the authentic antigen were also determined to be negative by using the recombinant antigen. Thus, both the sensitivity and the specificity of this IF technique were 100% compared to the IF with authentic antigen. The novel IF technique using CCHFV rNP-expressing HeLa cells can be used not only for diagnosis of CCHF but also for epidemiological studies on CCHFV infections. (+info)
Recombinant nucleoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.
The full-length nucleoprotein of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV; 482 amino acid residues) was expressed as a His-tagged recombinant protein (His-CCHFV rNP) in the baculovirus system. The His-CCHFV rNP was efficiently expressed in insect cells and purified by Ni(2+) column chromatography. Using this substrate, an immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the IgG ELISA, using serum samples previously determined to be antibody positive or negative by immunofluorescence tests on CCHFV-infected Vero E6 cells. We found very good correlation between the two tests: 87% for the positive sera (13 of 15) and 99% for the negative sera (107 of 108). These results indicate that the new IgG ELISA using His-CCHFV rNP has high sensitivity and specificity for detecting CCHFV antibodies. The CCHF patients' sera with high titers reacted only with the NP fragment containing amino acid residues between 201 and 306 in Western blotting. It is known that amino acid homologies are high in this region among various isolates. Thus, it is expected that this ELISA can detect antibodies not only for Chinese strains of CCHFV but also for other strains circulating in the world. These results suggest that the IgG ELISA system developed with the recombinant CCHFV NP is a valuable tool for diagnosis and epidemiological investigations of CCHFV infections. (+info)
Genetic diversity of the M RNA segment among Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus isolates in China.
The complete nucleotide sequences of the medium (M) segment of seven Chinese isolates of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus were determined. The M-segment RNA of CCHF virus comprises 5356-5377 nucleotides depending on the isolate and encodes a protein comprising 1689-1697 amino acids in a viral complementary sense. Phylogenetic analysis of the M segment showed that the Chinese CCHF virus isolates were clustered into three groups, one of which was more closely related to a Nigerian isolate. Pairwise comparison of a precursor protein showed that amino-terminal regions comprising 250 amino acids were extraordinary heterogeneous, with a 22.4% identity in amino acids being observed between the most distantly related isolates. Since all the viruses were isolated from 1966 to 1988 within a restricted area in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in western China, the results indicate that a multisource virus population is endemic in this region. (+info)
Characterization of the glycoproteins of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus is the cause of an important tick-borne disease of humans throughout regions of Africa, Europe, and Asia. Like other members of the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae, the CCHF virus M genome RNA segment encodes the virus glycoproteins. Sequence analysis of the CCHF virus (Matin strain) M RNA segment revealed one major open reading frame that potentially encodes a precursor polyprotein 1,689 amino acids (aa) in length. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of the M-encoded polyproteins of Nigerian, Pakistani, and Chinese CCHF virus strains revealed two distinct protein regions. The carboxyl-terminal 1,441 aa are relatively highly conserved (up to 8.4% identity difference), whereas the amino-terminal 243 to 248 aa are highly variable (up to 56.4% identity difference) and have mucin-like features, including a high serine, threonine, and proline content (up to 47.3%) and a potential for extensive O-glycosylation. Analysis of released virus revealed two major structural glycoproteins, G2 (37 kDa) and G1 (75 kDa). Virus protein analysis by various techniques, including pulse-chase analysis and/or reactivity with CCHF virus-specific polyclonal and antipeptide antibodies, demonstrated that the 140-kDa (which contains the mucin-like region) and 85-kDa nonstructural proteins are the precursors of the mature G2 and G1 proteins, respectively. The amino termini of the CCHF virus (Matin strain) G2 and G1 proteins were established by microsequencing to be equivalent to aa 525 and 1046, respectively, of the encoded polyprotein precursor. The tetrapeptides RRLL and RKPL are immediately upstream of the cleavage site for mature G2 and G1, respectively. These are completely conserved among the predicted polyprotein sequences of all the CCHF virus strains and closely resemble the tetrapeptides that represent the major cleavage recognition sites present in the glycoprotein precursors of arenaviruses, such as Lassa fever virus (RRLL) and Pichinde virus (RKLL). These results strongly suggest that CCHF viruses (and other members of the genus Nairovirus) likely utilize the subtilase SKI-1/S1P-like cellular proteases for the major glycoprotein precursor cleavage events, as has recently been demonstrated for the arenaviruses. (+info)
Rapid detection and quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg viruses, Lassa virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, dengue virus, and yellow fever virus by real-time reverse transcription-PCR.
Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are acute infections with high case fatality rates. Important VHF agents are Ebola and Marburg viruses (MBGV/EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), dengue virus (DENV), and yellow fever virus (YFV). VHFs are clinically difficult to diagnose and to distinguish; a rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis is required in suspected cases. We have established six one-step, real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays for these pathogens based on the Superscript reverse transcriptase-Platinum Taq polymerase enzyme mixture. Novel primers and/or 5'-nuclease detection probes were designed for RVFV, DENV, YFV, and CCHFV by using the latest DNA database entries. PCR products were detected in real time on a LightCycler instrument by using 5'-nuclease technology (RVFV, DENV, and YFV) or SybrGreen dye intercalation (MBGV/EBOV, LASV, and CCHFV). The inhibitory effect of SybrGreen on reverse transcription was overcome by initial immobilization of the dye in the reaction capillaries. Universal cycling conditions for SybrGreen and 5'-nuclease probe detection were established. Thus, up to three assays could be performed in parallel, facilitating rapid testing for several pathogens. All assays were thoroughly optimized and validated in terms of analytical sensitivity by using in vitro-transcribed RNA. The >or=95% detection limits as determined by probit regression analysis ranged from 1,545 to 2,835 viral genome equivalents/ml of serum (8.6 to 16 RNA copies per assay). The suitability of the assays was exemplified by detection and quantification of viral RNA in serum samples of VHF patients. (+info)
Genetic detection and isolation of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Kosovo, Yugoslavia.
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (C-CHFV) strains were isolated from a fatal case and the attending physician in Kosovo, Yugoslavia. Early, rapid diagnosis of the disease was achieved by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The physician was successfully treated with oral ribavirin. These cases yielded the first genetically studied C-CHFV human isolates in the Balkans. (+info)