Immunosuppressant deoxyspergualin-induced inhibition of cell proliferation is accompanied with an enhanced reduction of tetrazolium salt. (1/970)

Deoxyspergualin (DSG) has both antitumor and immunosuppressive activities. We explored the mechanism of DSG activities using an aqueous soluble analogue, methyldeoxyspergualin (MeDSG) for in vitro culture studies. It is known that DSG has inhibitory effects on cell proliferation, and we also observed that MeDSG inhibited [3H]-thymidine incorporation by rapidly dividing murine T cell hybridomas. However, when tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric assay was adopted to evaluate its inhibitory effects on cell proliferation, MeDSG induced an enhanced MTT reduction. When we examined whether these results were applicable to the actively dividing cells of other origins than T cells, similar effects were seen with Raji cells, J774.1 cells and NIH3T3 cells. N-30, another analogue which was capable of suppressing anti-SRBC antibody production in vivo, also induced inhibition of cell growth and an enhanced MTT reduction. In contrast, the analogue which failed to prevent the antibody production, neither enhanced MTT reduction nor inhibited cell proliferation. Our results demonstrated that the ability to generate MTT formazan in dividing cells is a common property among, DSG analogue with the immunosuppressive and antiproliferative activities.  (+info)

Plaque-forming cells in mice after experimental infection with Brucella abortus. (2/970)

Cells producing antibody to brucella lipopolysaccharide were detected in spleens of mice infected with Brucella abortus 19 by a hemolytic plaque assay. The appearance of immunoglobulin M-producing cells preceded humoral antibodies. The primary plaques were observed 5 days after inoculation, and they were still present by day 70.  (+info)

The specificity of the anti-haemagglutinin antibody response induced in man by inactivated influenza vaccines and by natural infection. (3/970)

The anti-haemagglutinin antibody response in adult human volunteers to inactivated whole virus or tween ether split influenza A/Victoria/75 (H3N2) and A/Scotland/74 (H3N2) virus vaccines was investigated using antibody absorption and single-radial-haemolysis (SRH) techniques. The concentrations of haemagglutinin (HA), nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix (M) antigens measured by single radial diffusion (SRD) and rocket immunoelectrophoresis were similar for both the whole virus and split vaccines. Whole virus and split vaccines induced crossreactive (CR) antibody in 87% of vaccinees. Strain specific (SS) antibody to A/Hong Kong/1/68 of the homologous virus was induced less frequently than CR antibody. Higher anti-haemagglutinin antibody titres were detected in persons receiving the split virus vaccines than in those receiving the whole virus vaccines. No antibody to the type-specific matrix protein was detectable, but 33% of volunteers developed an antibody rise to type-specific nucleoprotein antigen. The specificity of the anti-haemagglutinin antibody response in human adults to natural infection with A/Port Chalmers/73 (H3N2) virus was similar to that induced by inactivated vaccines in that a high proportion of subjects developed CR anti-haemagglutinin antibody, which reacted with A/Hong Kong/68 virus and the homologous A/Port Chalmers/73 virus, and SS antibody for A/Hong Kong/68 virus but SS antibody for A/Port Chalmers/73 virus was infrequently stimulated by natural infection.  (+info)

SEREX analysis for tumor antigen identification in a mouse model of adenocarcinoma. (4/970)

Evaluation of immunotherapy strategies in mouse models of carcinoma is hampered by the limited number of known murine tumor antigens (Ags). Although tumor Ags can be identified based on cytotoxic T-cell activation, this approach is not readily accomplished for many tumor types. We applied an alternative strategy based on a humoral immune response, SEREX, to the identification of tumor Ags in the murine colon adenocarcinoma cell line MC38. Immunization of syngeneic C57BL/6 mice with MC38 cells by three different methods induced a protective immune response with concomitant production of anti-MC38 antibodies. Immunoscreening of an MC38-derived expression library resulted in the identification of the endogenous ecotropic leukemia virus envelope (env) protein and the murine ATRX protein as candidate tumor Ags. Northern blot analysis demonstrated high levels of expression of the env transcript in MC38 cells and in several other murine tumor cell lines, whereas expression in normal colonic epithelium was absent. ATRX was found to be variably expressed in tumor cell lines and in normal tissue. Further analysis of the expressed env sequence indicated that it represents a nonmutated tumor Ag. Polynucleotide immunization with DNA encoding the env polypeptide resulted in strong and specific antibody responses to this self Ag in all immunized mice. Thus, SEREX offers a rapid means of identifying tumor Ags in murine cancer models.  (+info)

Tolerance to cardiac allografts via local and systemic mechanisms after adenovirus-mediated CTLA4Ig expression. (5/970)

Blockade of the CD28/B7 T cell costimulatory pathway prolongs allograft survival and induces tolerance in some animal models. We analyzed the efficacy of a CTLA4Ig-expressing adenovirus in preventing cardiac allorejection in rats, the mechanisms underlying heart transplant acceptance, and whether the effects of CTLA4Ig were restricted to the graft microenvironment or were systemic. CTLA4Ig gene transfer into the myocardium allowed indefinite graft survival (>100 days vs 9 +/- 1 days for controls) in 90% of cases, whereas CTLA4Ig protein injected systemically only prolonged cardiac allograft survival (by up to 22 days). CTLA4Ig could be detected in the graft and in the serum for at least 1 year after gene transfer. CTLA4Ig gene transfer induced local intragraft immunomodulation at day 5 after transplantation, as shown by decreased expression of the IL-2R and MHC II Ags; decreased levels of mRNA encoding for IFN-gamma, inducible NO synthase, and TGF-beta; and inhibited proliferative responses of graft-infiltrating cells. Systemic immune responses were also down-modulated, as shown by the suppression of Ab production against donor alloantigens and cognate Ags, up to at least 120 days after gene transfer. Alloantigenic and mitogenic proliferative responses of graft-infiltrating cells and total splenocytes were inhibited and were not reversed by IL-2. In contrast, lymph node cells and T cells purified from splenocytes showed normal proliferation. Recipients of long-term grafts treated with adenovirus coding for CTLA4Ig showed organ and donor-specific tolerance. These data show that expression of CTLA4Ig was high and long lasting after adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. This expression resulted in down-modulation of responses against cognate Ags, efficient suppression of local and systemic allograft immune responses, and ultimate induction of donor-specific tolerance.  (+info)

Stimulation of hemolysin plaque-forming cells by idoxuridine. (6/970)

5-Iodo-2'-deoxyuridine markedly stimulates the production of hemolysin plaque-forming cells (HPFC) to sheep red blood cells in C3HeB/FeJ and A/J male and female mice. The degree of stimulation is dose dependent over a range of 50 to 200 mg/kg. Stimulation is observed when drug is given on the day of antigen administration, or up to 3 days thereafter, but not when given before antigen administration or 4 days thereafter. The stimulatory effect of IUdR given on day 2 after antigen is still noted on Day 15, but the time of HPFC production is not prolonged beyond that in controls. Both 19S and 7S HPFC are increased, although the effect on the latter is less pronounced. In addition to stimulating production of HPFC in immunized animals, 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine increases background HPFC production in nonimmunized mice by 250% when assayed on the day after treatment.  (+info)

Deregulation of mouse antibody-forming cells in vivo in cell culture by streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin. (7/970)

An unregulated, elevated rebound of antibody levels in rabbits was shown to follow late (10 to 15 days) after steptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin (SPE)-induced immunosuppression. Because of that result we have suggested that SPE acts by preferentially inhibiting a regulatory cell which normally limits the extent of full expression of antibody formation by B-cells. We are currently testing this hypothesis in mice. NIH (Swiss Webster) mice (+/+) or NIH (Swiss Webster) mice heterozygous (+/nu) for the mutant athymic nude gene and phenotypically normal showed an elevated plaque-forming cell (PFC) response to sheep erythrocytes (SE) late (10 to 15 days) after immunosuppressive SPE treatment similar to that described in rabbits. Homozygous nude mice (nu/nu) that are phenotypically athymic normally show a reduced early (4 day) PFC response to SE (a T-cell-dependent antigen) as compared with +/nu littermates or +/+ parent strain mice. This cryptic early 4-day response was improved by injection of purified endotoxin (a B-cell mitogen), but these relatively elevated nude PFC responses had decreased to normal control (SE only)nude PFC levels before 10 days. In similar SE-injected nude mice treated instead with SPE, no elevation at 4 days was observed and, more pertinently, the late (10 to 15 day) elevated rebound of PFC levels observed in normal response controls (+/nu or +/+) was not observed. Similar experiments were subsequently conducted in Marbrook-type spleen PFC cultures during periods of 12 days. The results of these experiments paralleled the in vivo results above, and in addition showed that SPE induced a large proliferation of either +/+ or +/nu cells (T-and B-cells) in culture but had no such effect on nu/nu cells (B-cells) in culture. Purified endotoxin, the Bcell mitogen, had a better sparing effect on nu/nu cells in this respect. These results are consistent with our premise that SPE inhibits preferentially the function of a regulator of the antibody response. The regulator appears to be a T-cell and is likely a suppressor T-cell.  (+info)

Immune responses of specific pathogen-free and gnotobiotic mice to antigens of indigenous and nonindigenous microorganisms. (8/970)

Strains of indigenous Escherichia coli, Bacteroides, and Lactobacillus were isolated from the gastrointestinal tracts of specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice. Nonvaccinated SPF mice exhibited in their spleens low numbers of plaque-forming cells (PFC) and rosette-forming cells reacting with antigens of these andigenous bacteria. PFC reacting with these bacterial antigens were not detected in infant SPF mice until 7 days after birth. Compared with nonvaccinated controls, SPF mice vaccinated parenterally with indigenous E. coli or Bacteroides produced a moderate increase in the numbers of specific PFC. Thus, the SPF mouse is capable of responding immunologically after vaccination with microbes indigenous to its intestinal tract. However, more PFC reacting with homologous vaccine antigens were detected after parenteral vaccination of SPF mice with nonindigenous E. coli O127:B8, E.coli O14, or B. fragilis than after parenteral vaccination with indigenous E. coli or Bacteroides. Gnotobiotic mice orally monoassociated with these nonindigenous bacteria exhibited greater immune responses to antigens of the bacteria used to monoassociation than did gnotobiotes monoassociated with the indigenous microbes. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that mice are more responsive immunologically to antigens of nonindigenous bacteria than they are to antigens of certain microbes indigenous to their gastrointestinal tracts.  (+info)