(1/584) A new alkali-resistant hemoglobin alpha2J Oxford gammaF2 in a Sicilian baby girl with homozygous beta0 thalassemia.
A 10-mo-old baby girl with homozygous beta0 thalassemia and alphaJOxford, presenting the clinical picture of homozygous beta thalassemia is described. Hemoglobin electrophoresis showed three bands: the first two with the mobilities of hemoglobin Hb A2 (1%) and Hb F (69%), respectively, the third migrating a little faster than Hb A (30%). About 30% of her alpha chains were J Oxford which, bound to her gamma chains, produced a new alkali-resistant hemoglobin, alpha2 J Oxford gamma F2, which has not been described previously. Hemoglobin synthesis in vitro showed the absence of beta chain synthesis and an alpha/non-alpha ratio of 2. The patient's father was heterozygous for both the Hb J Oxford and beta0 thalassemia genes, the mother a carrier of beta0 thalassemia; four other relatives were carriers of Hb J Oxford, and one was a carrier of beta thalassemia. (+info)
(2/584) Hemoglobin Providence. A human hemoglobin variant occurring in two forms in vivo.
Hemoglobin Providence Asn and Hemoglobin Providence Asp are two abnormal hemoglobins which apparently arise from a single genetic change that substitutes asparagine for lysine at position 82 (EF6) in the beta chain of human hemoglobin. The second form appears to be thr result of a partial in vivo deamidation of the asparagine situated at position beta 82. Cellulose acetate and citrate agar electrophoresis of hemolysates from patients with this abnormality shows three bands. Globin chain electrophoresis at acid and alkaline pH shows three beta chains. These three chains correspond to the normal beta A chain and two abnormal beta chains. Sequence analysis indicates that the two abnormal chains differ from beta A at only position beta 82. In the two abnormal chains, the residue which is normally lysine is substituted either by asparagine or by aspartic acid. These substitutions are notable because beta 82 lysine is one of the residues involved in 2,3-diphosphoglycerate binding. Additionally, beta 82 lysine is typically invariant in hemoglobin beta chain sequences. Sequence data on the two forms of Hemoglobin Providence are given in this paper. The functional properties of these two forms are described in the next paper. (+info)
(3/584) Reactivity of cyanate with valine-1 (alpha) of hemoglobin. A probe of conformational change and anion binding.
The 3-fold increase in the carbamylation rate of Val-1 (alpha) of hemoglobin upon deoxygenation described earlier is now shown to be a sensitive probe of conformational change. Thus, whereas this residue in methemoglobin A is carbamylated at the same rate as in liganded hemoglobin, upon addition of inositol hexaphosphate its carbamylation rate is enhanced 30% as much as the total change in the rate between the CO and deoxy states. For CO-hemoglobin Kansas in the presence of the organic phosphate, the relative increase in the carbamylation rate of this residue is about 50%. These results indicate that methemoglobin A and hemoglobin Kansas in the presence of inositol hexaphosphate do not assume a conformation identical with deoxyhemoglobin but rather form either a mixture of R and T states or an intermediate conformation in the region around Val-1 (alpha). Studies on the mechanism for the rate enhancement in deoxyhemoglobin suggest that the cyanate anion binds to groups in the vicinity of Val-1 (alpha) prior to proton transfer and carbamylation of this NH2-terminal residue. Thus, specific removal with carboxypeptidase B of Arg-141 (alpha), which is close to Val-1 (alpha) in deoxyhemoglobin, abolishes the enhancement in carbamylation. Chloride, which has the same valency as cyanate, is a better competitive inhibitor of the carbamylation of deoxyhemoglobin (Ki = 50 mM) compared with liganded hemoglobin. Nitrate and iodide are also effective inhibitors of the carbamylation of Val-1 (alpha) of deoxyhemoglobin (Ki = 35 mM); inorganic phosphate, sulfate, and fluoride are poor competitive inhibitors. The change in pKa of Val-1 (alpha) upon deoxygenation may be due to its differential interaction with chloride. (+info)
(4/584) Haemoglobin LeporeBoston in a Turkish family.
Haemoglobin Lepore was demonstrated in four members of a Turkish family. It was found in the heterozygote state and was associated with erythrocyte morphology similar to that observed in the beta thalassaemia trait. The average concentration of haemoglobin Lepore was 8.1% of the total haemoglobin. Structural analysis showed that the Lepore haemoglobin was the LeporeBoston type. This is the first reported instance of the occurrence of haemoglobin Lepore in Turkey. (+info)
(5/584) The structural and functional analysis of the hemoglobin D component from chicken.
Oxygen binding by chicken blood shows enhanced cooperativity at high levels of oxygen saturation. This implies that deoxy hemoglobin tetramers self-associate. The crystal structure of an R-state form of chicken hemoglobin D has been solved to 2.3-A resolution using molecular replacement phases derived from human oxyhemoglobin. The model consists of an alpha2 beta2 tetramer in the asymmetric unit and has been refined to a R-factor of 0.222 (R-free = 0.257) for 29,702 reflections between 10.0- and 2.3-A resolution. Chicken Hb D differs most from human oxyhemoglobin in the AB and GH corners of the alpha subunits and the EF corner of the beta subunits. Reanalysis of published oxygen binding data for chicken Hbs shows that both chicken Hb A and Hb D possess enhanced cooperativity in vitro when inositol hexaphosphate is present. The electrostatic surface potential for a calculated model of chicken deoxy-Hb D tetramers shows a pronounced hydrophobic patch that involves parts of the D and E helices of the beta subunits. This hydrophobic patch is a promising candidate for a tetramer-tetramer interface that could regulate oxygen binding via the distal histidine. (+info)
(6/584) Altered ligand rebinding kinetics due to distal-side effects in hemoglobin chico (Lysbeta66(E10) --> thr).
Hb Chico is an unusual human hemoglobin variant that has lowered oxygen affinity, but unaltered cooperativity and anion sensitivity. Previous studies showed these features to be associated with distal-side heme pocket alterations that confer increased structural rigidity on the molecule and that increase water content in the beta-chain heme pocket. We report here that the extent of nanosecond geminate rebinding of oxygen to the variant and its isolated beta-chains is appreciably decreased. Structural alterations in this variant decrease its oxygen recombination rates without significantly altering rates of migration out of the heme pocket. Data analysis indicates that one or more barriers that impede rebinding of oxygen from docking sites in the heme pocket are increased, with less consequence for CO rebinding. Resonance Raman spectra show no significant alterations in spectral regions sensitive to interactions between the heme iron and the proximal histidine residue, confirming that the functional differences in the variant are due to distal-side heme pocket alterations. These effects are discussed in the context of a schematic representation of heme pocket wells and barriers that could aid the design of novel hemoglobins with altered ligand affinity without loss of the normal allosteric responses that facilitate unloading of oxygen to respiring tissues. (+info)
(7/584) Haemoglobin E Saskatoon beta 22 Glu replaced by Lys in the Shetland Islands.
A survey of blood samples from the inhabitants of the Shetland Islands has revealed the presence of a variant haemoglobin in 1 individual out of the 345 tested. The rariant haemoglobin accounted for 46% of the total haemoglobin. Tryptic digestion and amino acid analysis indicated that the variant haemoglobin was caused by the substitution of a glutamic acid residue at position 22 in the beta chain by a lysine residue. This is the same amino acid substituion as found in haemoglobin E Saskatoon. (+info)
(8/584) Cyanide binding to Lucina pectinata hemoglobin I and to sperm whale myoglobin: an x-ray crystallographic study.
The x-ray crystal structures of the cyanide derivative of Lucina pectinata monomeric hemoglobin I (L. pectinata HbI) and sperm whale (Physeter catodon) myoglobin (Mb), generally taken as reference models for monomeric hemoproteins carrying hydrogen sulfide and oxygen, respectively, have been determined at 1.9 A (R-factor = 0. 184), and 1.8 A (R-factor = 0.181) resolution, respectively, at room temperature (lambda = 1.542 A). Moreover, the x-ray crystal structure of the L. pectinata HbI:cyanide derivative has been studied at 1.4-A resolution (R-factor = 0.118) and 100 K (on a synchrotron source lambda = 0.998 A). At room temperature, the cyanide ligand is roughly parallel to the heme plane of L. pectinata HbI, being located approximately 2.5 A from the iron atom. On the other hand, the crystal structure of the L. pectinata HbI:cyanide derivative at 100 K shows that the diatomic ligand is coordinated to the iron atom in an orientation almost perpendicular to the heme (the Fe-C distance being 1.95 A), adopting a coordination geometry strictly reminescent of that observed in sperm whale Mb, at room temperature. The unusual cyanide distal site orientation observed in L. pectinata HbI, at room temperature, may reflect reduction of the heme Fe(III) atom induced by free radical species during x-ray data collection using Cu Kalpha radiation. (+info)