(1/4164) Cardiovascular disease in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: similar rates but different risk factors in the US compared with Europe.

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been linked to renal disease. However, little is known concerning international variation in the correlations with hyperglycaemia and standard CVD risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparison was made of prevalence rates and risk factor associations in two large studies of IDDM subjects: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study (EDC) and the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study from 31 centres in Europe. Subgroups of each were chosen to be comparable by age and duration of diabetes. The EDC population comprises 286 men (mean duration 20.1 years) and 281 women (mean duration 19.9 years); EURODIAB 608 men (mean duration 18.1 years) and 607 women (mean duration 18.9 years). The mean age of both populations was 28 years. Cardiovascular disease was defined by a past medical history of myocardial infarction, angina, and/or the Minnesota ECG codes (1.1-1.3, 4.1-4.3, 5.1-5.3, 7.1). RESULTS: Overall prevalence of CVD was similar in the two populations (i.e. men 8.6% versus 8.0%, women 7.4% versus 8.5%, EURODIAB versus EDC respectively), although EDC women had a higher prevalence of angina (3.9% versus 0.5%, P < 0.001). Multivariate modelling suggests that glycaemic control (HbA1c) is not related to CVD in men. Age and high density lipoprotein cholesterol predict CVD in EURODIAB, while triglycerides and hypertension predict CVD in EDC. For women in both populations, age and hypertension (or renal disease) are independent predictors. HbA1c is also an independent predictor-inversely in EURODIAB women (P < 0.008) and positively in EDC women (P = 0.03). Renal disease was more strongly linked to CVD in EDC than in EURODIAB. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a similar prevalence of CVD, risk factor associations appear to differ in the two study populations. Glycaemic control (HbA1c) does not show a consistent or strong relationship to CVD.  (+info)

(2/4164) Inhibition of advanced glycation endproduct formation by acetaldehyde: role in the cardioprotective effect of ethanol.

Epidemiological studies suggest that there is a beneficial effect of moderate ethanol consumption on the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Ethanol is metabolized to acetaldehyde, a two-carbon carbonyl compound that can react with nucleophiles to form covalent addition products. We have identified a biochemical modification produced by the reaction of acetaldehyde with protein-bound Amadori products. Amadori products typically arise from the nonenzymatic addition of reducing sugars (such as glucose) to protein amino groups and are the precursors to irreversibly bound, crosslinking moieties called advanced glycation endproducts, or AGEs. AGEs accumulate over time on plasma lipoproteins and vascular wall components and play an important role in the development of diabetes- and age-related cardiovascular disease. The attachment of acetaldehyde to a model Amadori product produces a chemically stabilized complex that cannot rearrange and progress to AGE formation. We tested the role of this reaction in preventing AGE formation in vivo by administering ethanol to diabetic rats, which normally exhibit increased AGE formation and high circulating levels of the hemoglobin Amadori product, HbA1c, and the hemoglobin AGE product, Hb-AGE. In this model study, diabetic rats fed an ethanol diet for 4 weeks showed a 52% decrease in Hb-AGE when compared with diabetic controls (P < 0.001). Circulating levels of HbA1c were unaffected by ethanol, pointing to the specificity of the acetaldehyde reaction for the post-Amadori, advanced glycation process. These data suggest a possible mechanism for the so-called "French paradox," (the cardioprotection conferred by moderate ethanol ingestion) and may offer new strategies for inhibiting advanced glycation.  (+info)

(3/4164) The influence of NO synthase inhibitor and free oxygen radicals scavenger--methylene blue--on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

The excessive production of nitric oxide (NO) and the subsequent increase of local oxidative stress is suggested as one of the pathophysiological mechanisms of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. It was reported that the administration of NO synthase inhibitors partially attenuated the development of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and reduced hyperglycaemia. Here we have studied the influence of methylene blue, which combines the properties of NO synthase inhibitor with antioxidant effects. The experiments were performed on male rats divided into four groups: control, diabetic (single dose of 70 mg of streptozotocin/kg i.p.), methylene blue (50 mg/kg in the food) and diabetic simultaneously fed with methylene blue. After 45 days the experiments were discontinued by decapitation. Serum glycaemia, glycated haemoglobin and oxidative stress parameters (plasma malondialdehyde concentration and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity) were significantly higher in the diabetic group. Simultaneous methylene blue administration partially reduced glycaemia and glycated haemoglobin, but did not decrease oxidative stress. We conclude that NO synthase inhibitor methylene blue partially attenuates the development of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male rats, but does not reduce the development of oxidative stress in the diabetic group.  (+info)

(4/4164) Relationship between glycosylated hemoglobin and the prevalence of proteinuria in Japanese men.

A total of 5,174 Japanese men were included in a cross-sectional study to examine the relationship between the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) level and the prevalence of proteinuria as determined using a reagent strip. The prevalence of proteinuria rose significantly at HbA1C levels above 5.9%, whereas no relationship was observed at HbA1C levels below 5.9%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that blood pressure and a family history of diabetes were independent factors associated with proteinuria in subjects with a HbA1C below 5.9% who were not under medication for diabetes. In contrast, HbA1C, obesity and smoking were associated with proteinuria in subjects who were under medication for diabetes and/or have a HbA1C above 5.9%. These findings suggest that maintaining a HbA1C level below 5.9%, non-smoking and a standard body weight may reduce the prevalence of proteinuria in Japanese men. Healthy life-style and standard body weight are especially important for subjects with a family history of diabetes.  (+info)

(5/4164) Brain-derived neurotrophic factor improves blood glucose control and alleviates fasting hyperglycemia in C57BLKS-Lepr(db)/lepr(db) mice.

Systemic administration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) decreases nonfasted blood glucose in obese, non-insulin-dependent diabetic C57BLKS-Lepr(db)/lepr(db) (db/db) mice, with a concomitant decrease in body weight. By measuring percent HbA1c in BDNF-treated and pair-fed animals, we show that the effects of BDNF on nonfasted blood glucose levels are not caused by decreased food intake but reflect a significant improvement in blood glucose control. Furthermore, once established, this effect can persist for weeks after cessation of BDNF treatment. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed to examine the effects of BDNF on blood glucose control in the fasted state and after an oral glucose challenge. BDNF treatment normalized fasting blood glucose from initially hyperglycemic levels and also showed evidence for beneficial, although less marked, effects on the ability to remove exogenous glucose from blood. One means to lower fasting blood glucose is to reduce the glucose output of peripheral tissues that normally play a part in the maintenance of fasting hyperglycemia. Because the liver is the major endogenous source of glucose in blood during fasting, and because hepatic weight and glucose output are increased in type 2 diabetes, we evaluated the effects of BDNF on liver tissue. BDNF reduced the hepatomegaly present in db/db mice, in association with reduced liver glycogen and reduced liver enzyme activity in serum, supporting the possible involvement of liver tissue in the mechanism of action for BDNF.  (+info)

(6/4164) A 1-year multicenter randomized double-blind comparison of repaglinide and glyburide for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Dutch and German Repaglinide Study Group.

OBJECTIVE: Repaglinide is a newly developed oral blood glucose-lowering agent that exerts its effect by stimulating insulin secretion. This multicenter study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of this drug with glyburide in a 1-year randomized double-blind study of outpatients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 424 subjects (154 women, 270 men) participated and had the following characteristics: age, 61 +/- 9 years; duration of diabetes. 8 years (range 0.5-35); BMI, 28.3 +/- 3.5 kg/m2; HbA1c, 7.1 +/- 1.4%; and fasting plasma glucose, 10.8 +/- 3.1 mmol/l. The majority of the subjects (91%) were previously treated with sulfonylurea, alone or in combination with metformin. The patients were randomized to a 2:1 ratio of repaglinide (0.5-4 mg t.i.d.) or glyburide (1.75-10.5 mg daily) treatment. The study protocol included a screening visit to assess patient eligibility; a titration period of 6-8 weeks, during which the dosages of repaglinide and glyburide were optimized; and a subsequent 12-month treatment period on fixed, optimal dosages. RESULTS: The trial was completed by 320 subjects, 211 (74%) in the repaglinide and 109 (78%) in the glyburide group. HbA1c initially decreased in both groups and then increased during the second half-year of the maintenance period to a similar extent in the repaglinide and glyburide subjects (0.58 and 0.45% vs. at screening, respectively). In the small group of subjects who previously controlled their condition with diet only (n = 37), a sustained improvement of metabolic control could be observed with both drugs, which was slightly better with glyburide than with repaglinide (theta HbA1c -2.4 vs. -1.0%; P < 0.05). The same trends were seen with fasting plasma glucose. There were no changes in serum lipids. Over the course of the study, 15% of the repaglinide-treated and 13% of glyburide-treated subjects withdrew due to adverse events, mostly hyperglycemia. No differences in adverse events between both drugs were reported. There were no differences in incidences of hypoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS: Repaglinide is a safe and efficacious oral blood glucose-lowering agent, with a potency similar to that of glyburide. Its rapid onset of action and hepatic clearance allows meal-related administration, including in subjects with impaired kidney function.  (+info)

(7/4164) Long-term intensive treatment of type 1 diabetes with the short-acting insulin analog lispro in variable combination with NPH insulin at mealtime.

OBJECTIVE: To establish whether the short-acting insulin analog lispro can be successfully implemented in long-term intensive insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes, and if so, what its effects are on glycemic control and frequency and awareness of hypoglycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We randomized 56 type 1 diabetic patients to treatment with either lispro (n = 28) or human regular insulin (Hum-R; n = 28) as mealtime insulin for 1 year (open design, parallel groups). Lispro was injected at mealtime and Hum-R was given 10-40 min before meals (bedtime NPH was continued on both occasions). With lispro, NPH was added at breakfast (approximately 70/30), lunch (approximately 60/40), and supper (approximately 80/20) (mixing percentage of lispro/NPH) to optimize premeal and bedtime blood glucose. RESULTS: Total daily insulin units were no different in the two treatment groups, but with lispro approximately 30% less short-acting insulin at meals and approximately 30% more NPH was needed versus Hum-R (P < 0.05). The bedtime NPH dosage was no different. With lispro + NPH, the mean daily blood glucose was lower than with Hum-R (8.0 +/- 0.1 vs. 8.8 +/- 0.1 mmol/l; P < 0.05), HbA1c was lower (6.34 +/- 0.10 vs. 6.71 +/- 0.11%, mean value over 1 year; P < 0.002), and hypoglycemia (blood glucose < or = 3.8 mmol/l) was less frequent (7.4 +/- 0.5 vs. 11.5 +/- 0.7 episodes/patient-month) and tended to occur more within 90 min after meals than in the postabsorptive state (P < 0.05 vs. Hum-R). After 1 year, plasma adrenaline and symptom responses to experimental, stepped hypoglycemia improved with lispro and were closer to the responses of 12 nondiabetic control subjects versus Hum-R both in terms of thresholds and magnitude (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that mealtime injection of lispro + NPH improves the 24-h blood glucose and the percentage HbA1c as compared with Hum-R. The improvement can be maintained long term. Intensive therapy with lispro + NPH results in less frequent hypoglycemia and better awareness and counterregulation of hypoglycemia.  (+info)

(8/4164) Microalbuminuria prevalence varies with age, sex, and puberty in children with type 1 diabetes followed from diagnosis in a longitudinal study. Oxford Regional Prospective Study Group.

OBJECTIVE: The predictive value of microalbuminuria (MA) in children with type 1 diabetes has not been defined. We describe the natural history of MA in a large cohort of children recruited at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Between 1985 and 1996, 514 children (279 male) who developed type 1 diabetes before the age of 16 years (91% of those eligible from a region where ascertainment of new cases is 95%) were recruited for a longitudinal study with central annual assessment of HbAlc and albumin excretion (three urine samples). Dropout rates have been < 1% per year, and 287 children have been followed for > 4.5 years. RESULTS: MA (defined as albumin-to-creatinine ratio > or = 3.5 and > or = 4.0 mg/mmol in boys and girls, respectively) developed in 63 (12.8%) and was persistent in 22 (4.8%) of the subjects. The cumulative probability (based on the Kaplan-Meier method) for developing MA was 40% after 11 years. HbAlc was worse in those who developed MA than in others (mean difference +/- SEM: 1.1% +/- 0.2, P < 0.001). In subjects who had been 5-11 years of age when their diabetes was diagnosed, the appearance of MA was delayed until puberty, whereas of those whose age was < 5 years at diagnosis of diabetes, 5 of 11 (45%) developed MA before puberty. The adjusted proportional probability (Cox model) of MA was greater for female subjects (200%), after pubertal onset (310%), and with greater HbAlc (36% increase for every 1% increase in HbAlc). Despite earlier differences based on age at diagnosis of diabetes (< 5, 5-11, and > 11 years), the overall cumulative risks in these groups were similar (38 vs. 29 vs. 39%, respectively) after 10 years' duration of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Prepubertal duration of diabetes and prepubertal hyperglycemia contribute to the risk of postpubertal MA. The differences in rates of development of MA relating to HbAlc, sex, and age at diagnosis relative to puberty may have long-term consequences for the risk of subsequent nephropathy and for cardiovascular risk.  (+info)