The leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist ONO-4057 inhibits nephrotoxic serum nephritis in WKY rats.
To evaluate the role of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in glomerulonephritis, this study was conducted to examine whether ONO-4057, an LTB4 receptor antagonist, moderated nephritis caused by the injection of nephrotoxic serum (NTS) into Wistar-Kyoto rats. Rats were given intraperitoneal injections of ONO-4057 or phosphate-buffered saline 24 h before the injection of NTS. These rats subsequently received equal doses of ONO-4057 or phosphate-buffered saline 3 h and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 d later. Compared with the control groups, ONO-4057 treatment significantly reduced proteinuria and hematuria, suppressed the glomerular accumulation of monocytes/macrophages, and reduced the formation of crescentic glomeruli in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that LTB4 is responsible for the crescentic formations and renal dysfunction associated with NTS nephritis. The LTB4 receptor antagonist ONO-4057 may thus be beneficial in the treatment of crescentic glomerulonephritis. (+info)
Acute renal impairment after immersion and near-drowning.
Acute renal impairment (ARI) secondary to immersion and near-drowning is rarely described and poorly understood. A retrospective case-control study was performed: (1) to determine the incidence of ARI associated with near-drowning or immersion and (2) to define the clinical syndrome and to assess clinical predictors of ARI. Of 30 patients presenting after immersion or near-drowning, 50% were identified with ARI, with a mean admission serum creatinine of 0.24 +/- 0.33 mmol/L (2.7 +/- 3.7 mg/dl). These patients were a heterogeneous group: Eight had mild reversible ARI, three had ARI related to shock and multisystem failure, two had rhabdomyolysis-related ARI, and two had severe isolated ARI. Two patients required supportive hemodialysis and two died. Patients with ARI experienced more marked acidosis than control patients, as measured by serum bicarbonate (P < 0.001), pH (P < 0.001), and base excess (P < 0.001). There was also a higher admission lymphocyte count in the ARI group (P = 0.056). Dipstick hematuria on admission was significantly more common in patients with ARI (P = 0.016), and patients with 2 to 3+ of admission dipstick proteinuria had a higher peak serum creatinine than patients with less proteinuria (P < 0.05). Admission predictors of ARI by univariate logistic regression analysis included reduced serum bicarbonate (P = 0.002), pH (P = 0.001), and base excess (P < 0.001). The best predictor of ARI on multivariate analysis was a negative base excess (P = 0.01). In summary, acute renal impairment commonly occurs after immersion and near-drowning and is a heterogeneous condition. Although mild reversible renal impairment (serum creatinine < 0.30 mmol/L) (3.4 mg/dl) is usual, severe acute renal failure requiring dialysis can occur. It is recommended that any patient who presents after near-drowning or immersion should be assessed for potential ARI by serial estimations of serum creatinine, particularly when there is an increase in the initial serum creatinine, marked metabolic acidosis, an abnormal urinalysis, or a significant lymphocytosis. (+info)
Haemorrhagic cystitis: incidence and risk factors in a transplant population using hyperhydration.
Haemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is the syndrome of haematuria and symptoms of lower urinary tract irritability in the absence of bacterial infection. We report a low incidence of HC (18.2%) in 681 haemopoietic stem cell transplant patients, using a prophylactic regimen of hyperhydration and forced diuresis. The incidence of grade 3-4 disease is 3.4%. There was a marked difference in incidence between allogeneic and autologous transplant populations, 24.2% vs. 3.5% (P<0.0005). Busulphan conditioning, acute GVHD, interstitial pneumonitis and use of methotrexate and cyclosporin immune suppression were associated with significantly increased incidence of HC in the allogeneic population. This may reflect the numerous factors that contribute to the greater immunosuppression and consequent increased risk for HC in allogeneic transplantation. (+info)
Hematuria: an unusual presentation for mucocele of the appendix. Case report and review of the literature.
Mucocele of the appendix is a nonspecific term that is used to describe an appendix abnormally distended with mucus. This may be the result of either neoplastic or non-neopleastic causes and may present like most appendiceal pathology with either mild abdominal pain or life-threatening peritonitis. Urologic manifestations of mucocele of the appendix have rarely been reported. Laparoscopy can be used as a diagnostic tool in equivocal cases. Conversion to laparotomy may be indicated if there is a special concern for the ability to remove the appendix intact or if more extensive resection is warranted, as in malignancy. We here report our experience with a woman presenting with hematuria whose ultimate diagnosis was mucocele of the appendix, and we review the appropriate literature. This case highlights the mucocele as a consideration in the differential diagnosis of appendiceal pathology and serves to remind the surgeon of the importance for careful intact removal of the diseased appendix. (+info)
Parameters associated with Schistosoma haematobium infection before and after chemotherapy in school children from two villages in the coast province of Kenya.
We evaluated the impact of praziquantel therapy (40 mg/kg body weight) on indicators of infection with Schistosoma haematobium by following a cohort of infected children from schools located 12 km apart in the Coast province of Kenya, at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 18 months after treatment. Within this period, measurements of infection parameters pertaining to egg counts and haematuria (micro-, macro- and history) were evaluated at all time points. The initial prevalence of 100% dropped significantly 8 weeks after treatment with a similar trend in the intensity of infection. Microhaematuria followed the same trend as observed for egg counts while macrohaematuria remained low after treatment. Reinfection following successful therapy differed significantly between schools; in one school the children were reinfected immediately while those in the other remained uninfected despite similar starting prevalences, intensities of infection and cure rates. Transmission between the two areas looked homogeneous before treatment but when both groups were treated, contrasting transmission patterns became evident. In a regression model we evaluated factors that might be associated with reinfection, and after allowing for pretreatment infection level, age and sex, area (school) remained a highly significant predictor. (+info)
Familial phenotype differences in PKD11.
Familial phenotype differences in PKD1. BACKGROUND: Mutations within the PKD1 gene are responsible for the most common and most severe form of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Although it is known that there is a wide range of disease severity within PKD1 families, it is uncertain whether differences in clinical severity also occur among PKD1 families. METHODS: Ten large South Wales ADPKD families with at least 12 affected members were included in the study. From affected members, clinical information was obtained, including survival data and the presence of ADPKD-associated complications. Family members who were at risk of having inherited ADPKD but were proven to be non-affected were included as controls. Linkage and haplotype analysis were performed with highly polymorphic microsatellite markers closely linked to the PKD1 gene. Survival data were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and the log rank test. Logistic regression analysis was used to test for differences in complication rates between families. RESULTS: Haplotype analysis revealed that each family had PKD1-linked disease with a unique disease-associated haplotype. Interfamily differences were observed in overall survival (P = 0.0004), renal survival (P = 0.0001), hypertension prevalence (P = 0.013), and hernia (P = 0.048). Individuals with hypertension had significantly worse overall (P = 0.0085) and renal (P = 0.03) survival compared with those without hypertension. No statistically significant differences in the prevalence of hypertension and hernia were observed among controls. CONCLUSION: We conclude that phenotype differences exist between PKD1 families, which, on the basis of having unique disease-associated haplotypes, are likely to be associated with a heterogeneous range of underlying PKD1 mutations. (+info)
Urine circulating soluble egg antigen in relation to egg counts, hematuria, and urinary tract pathology before and after treatment in children infected with Schistosoma haematobium in Kenya.
A cohort of 117 school children infected with Schistosoma haematobium was followed-up after therapy with praziquantel (0, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 18 months) and various infection and morbidity parameters (egg counts, hematuria, soluble egg antigen [SEA] in urine, and ultrasonography-detectable pathology) were quantified. At the onset of the study, 97% of the children were positive for S. haematobium with a geometric mean egg count of 45.7 eggs/10 ml of urine. Eighty-one percent of the children were positive for SEA in urine with a geometric mean SEA concentration of 218.8 ng/ml of urine. Ninety-two percent and 56% of the children were microhematuria positive and macrohematuria positive, respectively. Two months after treatment, all infection and morbidity indicators had significantly decreased. Reinfection after treatment as determined by detection of eggs in urine was observed by four months post-treatment while the other parameters remained low. The clearance of SEA was slower than that of egg counts while pathology resolved at an even slower pace. Levels of SEA and egg output showed similar correlations with ultrasound detectable pathology; these correlations were better than the correlation between hematuria and pathology. (+info)
Coeliac disease in adults: variations on a theme.
In childhood, coeliac disease (gluten enteropathy) tends to show itself with failure to thrive and growth retardation; in adult life with malabsorption syndromes. We report six cases in adults who presented atypically, with features including clotting disorder, hypoglycaemia, weight loss, anaemia and angina pectoris, all of which responded to gluten withdrawal. (+info)