A prospective study of chronic subdural haematomas in elderly patients.
OBJECTIVE: to study clinical features and prognosis of older people with chronic subdural haematoma who present to an elderly medicine department rather than a neurosurgical unit. DESIGN: prospective descriptive study with immediate and 6-month follow-up. SUBJECTS: patients aged 75 and over with chronic subdural haematoma presenting to an elderly medicine service, selected on the basis of age alone. METHODS: information was taken from inpatient notes and computerized tomographs and, for 6-month follow-up, from outpatient clinics, inpatient notes or via the general practitioner. RESULTS: the most common presenting features were falls and progressive neurological deficit. 42% of patients were known to be confused before their chronic subdural haematoma. Only 37% of the patients were treated by neurosurgeons. The others were managed conservatively either because they were unfit for surgery or the haematoma was small. There was only one death related to surgery but 31% of patients died within 6 months of diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Elderly patients in neurosurgical series are a selected subgroup of older patients with subdural haematoma. (+info)
A 34-year-old female presented with spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) manifesting as severe postural headache and meningism. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with gadolinium showed diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement. She developed bilateral chronic subdural hematomas 4 weeks after the onset of the symptoms. MR imaging showed descent of the midline structures of the brain. The bilateral chronic subdural hematomas were surgically drained, with no remarkable pressure. Postoperative MR imaging showed complete resolution of the pachymeningeal enhancement and relevation of the midline structures of the brain. SIH is an uncommon and probably unrecognized condition because of the usually benign course. However, this case emphasizes that SIH is not entirely benign. SIH should be considered if there is no identifiable risk for intracranial hemorrhage, particularly in young patients. Neurosurgical intervention for the treatment of the underlying cerebrospinal fluid leak may be required if SIH persists. (+info)
The fate of traumatic subdural hygroma in serial computed tomographic scans.
We reviewed serial computed tomographic (CT) scans of 58 patients with traumatic subdural hygroma (SDG) to investigate its natural history. All were re-evaluated with a special reference to the size and density of SDG. Thirty-four patients (58.6%) were managed conservatively and 24 patients (41.4%) underwent surgery. The lesion was described as remained, reduced, resolved, enlarged and changed. Means of interval from injury to diagnosis and any changes in CT were calculated. SDGs were resolved in 12 (20.7%), reduced in 15 (25.9%), remained in 10 (17.2%), enlarged in 2 (3.4%), and changed into chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) in 19 patients (32.8%). SDG was diagnosed at 11.6 days after the injury. It was enlarged at 25.5 days, remained at 46.0 days, reduced at 59.3 days, resolved at 107.5 days, and changed into CSDH at 101.5 days in average. SDGs were developed as delayed lesions, and changed sequentially. They enlarged for a while, then reduced in size. The final path of a SDG was either resolution or CSDH formation. Nearly half of SDGs was resolved or reduced within three months, however, 61.3% of unresolved or unreduced SDG became iso- or hyperdense CSDH. These results suggest that the unresolved SDG is the precursor of CSDH. (+info)
Organized chronic subdural hematoma requiring craniotomy--five case reports.
Two child and three elderly patients underwent craniotomy for organized and/or partially calcified chronic subdural hematomas (CSHs). The characteristic feature of magnetic resonance imaging was a heterogeneous web-like structure in the hematoma cavity. Both children had undergone one side subduroperitoneal shunt for bilateral CSHs when infants. As a result, the opposite hematoma cavities persisted and developed into calcified CSHs after a couple of years. All three elderly patients with senile brain atrophy showed various systemic complications such as cerebral infarction, diabetes mellitus, leg ulceration, cirrhosis, and bleeding tendency. Craniotomy for removal of the hematoma and calcification achieved good results in all patients. Subdural space created by shunt, craniotomy, or brain atrophy and persisting for a certain period, and additional various brain damage such as microcirculatory disorder, meningitis, encephalitis, or premature delivery may be important in generating calcified or organized CSH. (+info)
Chronic subdural hematoma with vasogenic edema in the cerebral hemisphere--case report.
An 80-year-old male with a history of hypertension presented with chronic subdural hematoma manifesting as progressive consciousness disturbance and left hemiparesis. T1-weighted and fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging showed a fresh hematoma in the right subdural space with a midline shift of 15 mm. FLAIR and diffusion-weighted imaging showed a hyperintense area in the right paraventricular white matter compressed by the hematoma. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) corresponding to the hyperintense area in the central area of the affected cerebral hemisphere on FLAIR images were measured before and one month after the operation. The motion probing gradient was applied in the right-left direction to the body axis. Since the central area in the cerebrum includes nerve fibers perpendicular to the direction of the gradient, the measured ADC appeared to be anisotropic. Preoperative ADC in the right paraventricular white matter was anisotropic and greater than in age-matched normal subjects, so the edema was identified as the vasogenic type. The edema in the right paraventricular white matter resolved promptly with improvement of the midline shift and normalization of the ADC. (+info)
Surgical treatment of chronic subdural hematoma in 500 consecutive cases: clinical characteristics, surgical outcome, complications, and recurrence rate.
Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is one of the most common clinical entities in daily neurosurgical practice. The diagnosis and treatment are well established, but recurrence, complications, and factors related to these problems, especially in the elderly, are not completely understood. This study evaluated the clinical features, radiological findings, and surgical results in a large series of the patients treated at the same institution. 500 consecutive patients (359 men and 141 women) with CSDH were treated by burr hole craniostomy with closed system drainage from January 1987 through February 1999. Causes, clinical and computed tomographic findings, surgical results, re-expansion of brain after surgery, and hematoma recurrence were statistically analyzed to elucidate the potential risks of CSDH. Most patients (89.4%) had good recovery, 8.4% showed no change, and 2.2% worsened. Six patients (1.2%) died, three due to disseminated intravascular coagulation. Recurrence of hematoma was recognized in 49 patients (9.8%), at 1 to 8 weeks (3.5 +/- 1.9 weeks) after the first operation. The brain re-expansion rate at one week after operation was 45.0 +/- 21.4% in patients with hematoma recurrence and significantly lower than 55.3 +/- 19.1% in patients without recurrence (p < 0.001). Old age, pre-existing cerebral infarction, and persistence of subdural air after surgery were significantly correlated with poor brain re-expansion (p < 0.001). Twenty-seven patients (5.4%) suffered postoperative complications, of which 13 cases were acute subdural hematoma caused by incomplete hemostasis of the scalp wound and four cases were tension pneumocephalus. Careful hemostasis and complete replacement of subdural hematoma by normal saline to prevent influx of air into the subdural space will further improve the surgical outcome for patients with CSDH. (+info)
Clinical factors of recurrent chronic subdural hematoma.
The clinical, radiological, and operative factors of recurrent chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) were retrospectively analyzed in 116 patients with CSDH in 134 hemispheres, treated by one burr hole surgery. The correlation of recurrence was evaluated with personal and clinical factors such as age, sex, history of head injury, and interval from onset of initial symptoms to hospitalization; laboratory findings such as bleeding tendency and liver function; computed tomography (CT) findings such as hematoma density and brain atrophy; and operative findings such as additional procedures and postoperative residual air. The recurrence group (RG) included 10 hemispheres (7.5%) in 10 patients (8.6%). The interval from onset of symptoms to hospitalization was significantly shorter in the RG than in the nonrecurrence group (NRG). Headache was more frequently seen in the RG than in the NRG. Density of hematoma on CT was classified into five types: Low, iso, and high density, niveau, and mixed, and the incidence of recurrence was 0%, 2.3%, 17.2%, 12.5%, and 6.5%, respectively. Larger amounts of residual air in the postoperative hematoma cavity were associated with recurrence of CSDH. CSDH that progresses rapidly in the acute stage and appears as high density on preoperative CT is associated with a high incidence of recurrence. Intraoperative air invasion to the hematoma cavity should be avoided to prevent recurrence. (+info)
Subdural haematoma after dural puncture headache treated by epidural blood patch.
Subdural haematoma is a well-documented complication of accidental dural puncture, and is thought to be preventable by prompt treatment with an epidural blood patch. An accidental dural puncture occurred in a 39-yr-old primagravida during the siting of an epidural catheter for pain relief in labour. Twenty hours after the puncture, the mother developed a typical postdural puncture headache, which increased in severity over the subsequent 24 h. An epidural blood patch was performed at 48 h, and this initially relieved the headache. After discharge from hospital, and 14 days after the dural puncture, the headache recurred, together with expressive dysphasia, poor co-ordination and sensory loss in the right arm. A magnetic resonance imaging scan demonstrated a left sided subdural haematoma, which was drained successfully with complete recovery. (+info)