Computerised tomography of acute traumatic intracranial haematoma: reliability of neurosurgeons' interpretations.
Two neurosurgeons concerned with the emergency management of patients with head injury correctly diagnosed the presence or absence of an acute intracranial haematoma in 97 scans that were presented to them without knowledge of the patients' clinical details. There were no false-positives or false-negatives, although identification of the type of haematoma was not always possible. The impact of the EMI scan on patient management demands new approaches to the care of head injuries. (+info)
Abrupt exacerbation of acute subdural hematoma mimicking benign acute epidural hematoma on computed tomography--case report.
A 75-year-old male was hit by a car, when riding a bicycle. The diagnosis of acute epidural hematoma was made based on computed tomography (CT) findings of lentiform hematoma in the left temporal region. On admission he had only moderate occipitalgia and amnesia of the accident, so conservative therapy was administered. Thirty-three hours later, he suddenly developed severe headache, vomiting, and anisocoria just after a positional change. CT revealed typical acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), which was confirmed by emergent decompressive craniectomy. He was vegetative postoperatively and died of pneumonia one month later. Emergent surgical exploration is recommended for this type of ASDH even if the symptoms are mild due to aged atrophic brain. (+info)
Spontaneous chronic spinal epidural hematoma of the lumbar spine.
We report an exceptional description of a spontaneous chronic spinal epidural hematoma presenting as lumbar radiculitis. The computed tomographic, magnetic resonance imaging, and intraoperative findings are presented. We discuss anatomical and pathophysiological considerations that could lead to such a condition. We estimate that spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas located in the ventral space are in fact premembranous or posterior longitudinal ligament hematomas. (+info)
Epidural haematoma after removal of an epidural catheter in a patient receiving high-dose enoxaparin.
A patient developed an epidural haematoma 6 days after removal of an epidural catheter resulting in paraplegia and death. Insertion and removal of the epidural catheter during anticoagulation with prophylactic unfractionated heparin and subsequent administration of high-dose enoxaparin (Clexane), which commenced 3 days after catheter removal, were implicated. (+info)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although previous reports have characterized MR imaging features of spinal epidural hematomas (EDH), few cases have been reported during the acute or hyperacute phase within the first 48 hours. Our goal in this investigation was to correlate the MR imaging features of acute (< or =48 hours) spontaneous EDH with clinical management and outcome. METHODS: Eight patients with acute spontaneous EDH (five men and three women; age range, 31-81 years) underwent MR imaging at 1.5 T (T1-weighted, n = 8; T1-weighted after the administration of 0.1 mmol/kg contrast material, n = 6; T2-weighted, n = 8; and T2-weighted, n = 4). The interval from symptom onset to hospital admission ranged from immediate to 5 days. Two neuroradiologists reviewed the MR images for signal characteristics, contrast enhancement, and cord compression. Treatment and clinical outcome were correlated with the imaging findings. RESULTS: The EDH were located in the cervical (n = 3), cervicothoracic (n = 2), thoracolumbar (n = 2), and lumbar (n = 1) regions. On T1-weighted images, the signal intensity of the EDH was isointense to spinal cord in five cases, hyperintense in two cases, and hypointense in one case and did not correlate with time to imaging. Isointensity on T1-weighted images persisted for 5 days in one case. On T2-weighted images, all EDHs were hyperintense with focal, heterogeneous hypointensity. Cord compression was severe in six patients, moderate in one patient, and minimal in one patient. Four cases were treated conservatively with complete resolution or improvement of symptoms within 1 to 3 weeks. CONCLUSION: MR imaging findings were useful in establishing the diagnosis of EDH but did not influence management or predict outcome in this series. Heterogeneous hyperintensity to cord with focal hypointensity on T2-weighted images should suggest the diagnosis of acute spinal EDH. Severity of neurologic impairment had the greatest impact on management and outcome. Nonoperative treatment may be successful in cases with minimal neurologic deficits, despite cord compression revealed by MR imaging. (+info)
Acute cervical epidural hematoma: case report.
A 74 year-old patient with a nocturnal onset of neck and chest pain was brought to an emergency clinic. Physical examination and cardiac assessment were normal. Three hours after the addmittance, a flaccid paralysis of the four limbs supervened. Suspecting of an unusual onset of central nervous system infection, a lumbar puncture was performed, yielding 20 ml of normal cerebrospinal fluid. Thirty oinutes after the puncture, the patient completely regained neurological funcion. He was then referred to a General Hospital where a computed tomography (CT) scan was done showing a large cervical epidural bleeding in the posterolateral region of C4/C5 extending to C7/Th1, along with a C6 vertebral body hemangioma. A magnetic resonance imaging revealed the same CT findings. A normal selective angiography of vertebral arteries, carotid arteries and thyreocervical trunk was carried out. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (ASSEH) is a rare but dramatic cause of neurological impairment. In this article we report a fortunate case of complete recovery after an unusual spine cord decompression. We also review the current literature concerning diagnosis and treatment of ASSEH. (+info)
Can spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma be managed safely without operation? A report of four cases.
The presentation, investigation, and management of four patients with spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma is presented. In each case the diagnosis was made by MRI. At the time of diagnosis spontaneous recovery had started in each patient and therefore they were all treated conservatively. In each case follow up MRI confirmed rapid reduction in the size of the haematoma and no underlying cause was demonstrated. The presentation, diagnosis, and rationale for treatment are discussed. Conservative treatment is safe in some cases of spinal epidural haematoma if early neurological recovery has started. (+info)
Recovery from Duret hemorrhage: a rare complication after craniotomy--case report.
A 44-year-old female presented with Duret hemorrhage due to transtentorial herniation by extradural hematoma as a complication after craniotomy for treatment of spontaneous middle cranial fossa cerebrospinal fluid leakage through the oval window. Brain computed tomography revealed linear hemorrhage in the midbrain and the rostral pons. She awoke after 2 weeks in a coma, despite showing ocular bobbing and bilateral intranuclear ophthalmoplegia. She was discharged from the hospital with minimal neurological defects. Duret hemorrhage is usually fatal, but this case shows that early surgical decompression is the most important factor to avoid the worst sequelae. (+info)