Changes in haematological parameters and iron metabolism associated with a 1600 kilometre ultramarathon.
(1/1031)OBJECTIVE: To investigate haematological variations and iron related changes in the serum of participants in a 1600 kilometre ultramarathon run. PARTICIPANTS: Seven male and two female participants in a 1600 km foot race. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from the participants before, after four and 11 days of running, and at the end of the event. Samples were analysed by standard methods for haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total red cell count, mean red cell volume, mean red cell haemoglobin, total white cell count and differential, platelets, reticulocytes, iron, ferritin, total iron binding capacity, percentage transferrin saturation, haptoglobin, and bilirubin and corrected for changes in plasma volume. RESULTS: The following variables decreased during the event (p < 0.05): haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean red cell volume, percentage lymphocytes, percentage monocytes, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, and percentage transferrin saturation. Increases (p < 0.05) were found in plasma volume, total red cell count (day 4 only), total white cell count, percentage and absolute numbers of neutrophils and reticulocytes, absolute numbers of lymphocytes and monocytes (day 4 only), absolute numbers of eosinophils (day 11 and race end), absolute numbers of basophils (race end only), platelets, ferritin, haptoglobin, and bilirubin (day 4 only). CONCLUSION: Ultramarathon running is associated with a wide range of changes in haematological parameters, many of which are related to the normal acute phase response to injury. These should not be confused with indicators of disease. (+info)
Phase II study of cisplatin and vinorelbine as first-line chemotherapy in patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
(2/1031)PURPOSE: To evaluate the activity and toxicity of the combination of cisplatin (80 mg/m2 day 1) and vinorelbine (25 mg/m2 days 1 and 8) in patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix that has not been previously treated with chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty patients with cervical cancer were enrolled onto this study (27 stage IB-III, 23 stage IVB-recurrent). A two-stage optimal Simon design was applied. Thirteen responders of 29 treated patients were required to proceed beyond the first stage, and 28 responders were needed overall. RESULTS: Hematologic toxicity was mild, with neutropenia being the most frequent side effect. Nonhematologic toxicity was frequent but never severe; one patient had grade 3 peripheral neurotoxicity. Objective responses were recorded for 32 patients (64%): 11 patients (22%) achieved a complete response (CR) and 21 patients (42%) achieved a partial response (PR). The response rate was 81.5% in patients with IB-III stage (25.9% CR rate) and 43.5% in patients with IVB-recurrent disease (17.4% CR rate). Responses were seen both in stage IVB patients (one CR and two PRs, for an overall rate of 37.5%) and in patients with recurrent disease (three CRs + four PRs, for an overall rate of 46.7%). CONCLUSION: The combination of cisplatin and vinorelbine is an active regimen in the treatment of patients with early-stage and advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix. The hematologic and nonhematologic toxicity of this combination is mild. (+info)
Phase II trial of paclitaxel and cisplatin in metastatic and recurrent carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
(3/1031)PURPOSE: Both paclitaxel and cisplatin have moderate activity in patients with metastatic or recurrent cancer of the cervix, and the combination of these two agents has shown activity and possible synergism in a variety of solid tumors. We administered this combination to patients with metastatic or recurrent cervical cancer to evaluate its activity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-four consecutive patients were treated on an outpatient basis with paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 administered intravenously over a 3-hour period followed by cisplatin 75 mg/m2 administered intravenously with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support. The chemotherapy was administered every 3 weeks for a maximum of six courses. RESULTS: Sixteen patients (47%; 95% confidence interval, 30% to 65%) achieved an objective response, including five complete responses and 11 partial responses. Responses occurred in 28% of patients with disease within the radiation field only and in 57% of patients with disease involving other sites. The median duration of response was 5.5 months, and the median times to progression and survival for all patients were 5 and 9 months, respectively. Grade 3 or 4 toxicities included anemia in 18% of patients and granulocytopenia in 15% of patients. Fifty-three percent of patients developed some degree of neurotoxicity; 21% of cases were grade 2 or worse. CONCLUSION: The combination of paclitaxel with cisplatin seems relatively well tolerated and moderately active in patients with metastatic or recurrent cervical cancer. The significant incidence of neurotoxicity is of concern, and alternative methods of administration of the two agents could be evaluated. Then, further study of this combination, alone or with the addition of other active agents, is warranted. (+info)
Combined irinotecan and oxaliplatin plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in patients with advanced fluoropyrimidine/leucovorin-pretreated colorectal cancer.
(4/1031)PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of combined irinotecan and oxaliplatin in patients with advanced colorectal cancer pretreated with leucovorin-modulated fluoropyrimidines. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-six patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, who progressed while receiving or within 6 months after discontinuing palliative chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidines/leucovorin, were enrolled onto this study. Treatment consisted of oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2 on days 1 + 15 and irinotecan 80 mg/m2 on days 1 + 8 + 15 every 4 weeks. Depending on the absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) on the day of scheduled chemotherapeutic drug administration, a 5-day course of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) 5 microg/kg/d was given. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 42% for all 36 assessable patients (95% confidence interval, 26% to 59%), including two complete remissions (6%). Thirteen additional patients (36%) had stable disease, and only eight (22%) progressed. The median time to treatment failure was 7.5 months (range, 1 to 13.5+ months). After a median follow-up time of 14 months, 19 patients (53%) are still alive. Hematologic toxicity was commonly observed, although according to the ANC-adapted use of G-CSF (in 31 patients during 81 of 174 courses), it was generally mild: grade 3 and 4 granulocytopenia occurred in only five and two cases, respectively. The most frequent nonhematologic adverse reactions were nausea/emesis and diarrhea, which were rated severe in 17% and 19%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the combination of irinotecan and oxaliplatin with or without G-CSF has substantial antitumor activity in patients with progressive fluoropyrimidine/leucovorin-pretreated colorectal cancer. Overall toxicity was modest, with gastrointestinal symptoms constituting the dose-limiting side effects. Further evaluation of this regimen seems warranted. (+info)
Front-line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with docetaxel and gemcitabine: a multicenter phase II trial.
(5/1031)PURPOSE: To evaluate the tolerance and efficacy of the combination of docetaxel and gemcitabine in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-one chemotherapy-naive patients with NSCLC were treated with gemcitabine 900 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1 and 8 and docetaxel 100 mg/m2 intravenously on day 8 with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (150 microg/m2, subcutaneously) support from day 9 to day 15. Treatment was repeated every 3 weeks. RESULTS: The patients' median age was 64 years. The World Health Organization performance status was 0 to 1 in 39 patients and 2 in 12 patients. Fifteen patients (29%) had stage IIIB disease, and 36 (71%) had stage IV; histology was mainly squamous cell carcinoma (59%). A partial response was achieved in 19 patients (37.5%; 95% confidence interval, 24% to 50%); stable disease and progressive disease were each observed in 16 patients (31.4%). The median duration of response and the time to tumor progression were 5 and 6 months, respectively. The median survival was 13 months, and the actuarial 1-year survival was 50.7%. Grade 4 anemia and thrombocytopenia were rare (2%). Four patients (8%) developed grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, and all were complicated with fever; there was no treatment-related death. Grade 3 or 4 diarrhea occurred in three patients (6%), grade 2 or 3 neurotoxicity in four patients (8%), grade 2 or 3 asthenia in 10 patients (20%), and grade 2 or 3 edema in 10 patients (20%). CONCLUSION: The combination of docetaxel/gemcitabine is well tolerated, can be used for outpatients, and is active for the treatment of advanced NSCLC. This treatment merits further comparison with other cisplatin- or carboplatin-based combinations. (+info)
Paclitaxel and carboplatin in the treatment of small-cell lung cancer patients resistant to cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide: a non-cross-resistant schedule.
(6/1031)PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of paclitaxel and carboplatin (PC) in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients resistant to cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide (CDE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a phase II study with PC in SCLC patients who relapsed within 3 months after first-line treatment with CDE. Paclitaxel administration (175 mg/m2 by a 3-hour intravenous infusion) was followed by a 30-minute infusion of carboplatin (area under the curve 7; Chatelut formula) once every 3 weeks for five cycles. Dexamethasone, clemastine, and ranitidine were standard premedication before every cycle. RESULTS: Included were 35 patients (median age, 59 years; 16 with limited disease and 19 with extensive disease; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of < or = 1; median time off treatment 6 weeks) who were previously treated with CDE (n = 33), oral etoposide (n = 2), and reinduction CDE (n = 15); only one patient had received three CDE treatments of five cycles. The CDE regimen was followed by local thoracic radiotherapy in seven patients. Hematologic toxicity of grade 3 or 4, for leukopenia was 27% and 6%, for thrombocytopenia 21% and 13%, and for anemia 17% and 0%, respectively, for a total of 132 cycles. Two patients had neutropenic fever; no toxic death occurred. Nonhematologic toxicity was paresthesia CTC grade 3, diarrhea grade 4, and myalgia grade 3 in one patient each. Reversible paresthesia (CTC grade 1 and 2) in toes and fingers was reported in 69% of patients. Thirty-four patients were assessable for response: complete response in two patients, partial response in 23 patients, stable disease in eight patients, and progressive disease in one patient (response rate, 73.5%; 95% confidence interval, 59% to 88%). One patient was found to have atypical carcinoid at pathologic review and was excluded. Median time to progression was 21 weeks (range, 3 to 40 weeks). Median survival was 31 weeks (range, 6 to 112 weeks). One-year survival was 9%. CONCLUSION: Second-line PC in CDE-resistant SCLC patients yields a high response rate and seems non-cross-resistant to CDE. Toxicity was mild in these poor-prognosis patients. (+info)
Phase II trial of primary chemotherapy followed by reduced-dose radiation for CNS germ cell tumors.
(7/1031)PURPOSE: A prospective phase II study was initiated to assess the response rate, survival, and late effects of treatment in patients with newly diagnosed CNS germ cell tumors (GCT), using etoposide plus cisplatin followed by radiation therapy prescribed by extent of disease, histology, and response to chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients aged 8 to 24 years with histologically proven CNS GCT received etoposide (100 mg/m2/d) plus cisplatin (20 mg/m2/d) daily for 5 days every 3 weeks for four cycles, followed by radiation therapy. Nine patients had germinomas; eight had mixed GCT. Four patients (three with germinomas and one with mixed GCT) presented with leptomeningeal dissemination. RESULTS: Radiographically, 14 of 17 patients were assessable for response; 11 patients experienced complete regression, and three had major partial regression before radiation. Six of seven assessable patients with elevated CSF levels of alpha-fetoprotein or betahuman chorionic gonadotropin had normalization with chemotherapy alone; all normalized with combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy. All 17 patients are alive without evidence of disease (median follow-up, 51 months). One patient developed a relapse in the spinal leptomeninges and was rendered free of disease with spinal radiation more than 5 years ago. One patient developed carotid stenosis requiring surgery. Thus far, only minimal long-term deterioration in neurocognitive function has been detected as a consequence of protocol treatment. CONCLUSION: Conventional-dose intravenous chemotherapy with etoposide and cisplatin can effect tumor regression in a high proportion of patients with CNS GCT, including those with leptomeningeal metastases. Acute and long-term toxicities are acceptable. Progression-free survival and overall survival are excellent. (+info)
Phase I trial of docetaxel with estramustine in androgen-independent prostate cancer.
(8/1031)PURPOSE: To evaluate the toxicity, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of docetaxel when combined with oral estramustine and dexamethasone in a phase I study in patients with progressive metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-four men were stratified into minimally pretreated (MPT) and extensively pretreated (EPT) groups. Estramustine 280 mg PO tid was administered 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals on days 1 through 5, with escalated doses of docetaxel from 40 to 80 mg/m2 on day 2. Treatment was repeated every 21 days. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients were assessable for toxicity and 33 for response. In the MPT patients, dose-limiting myelosuppression was reached at 80 mg/m2, with six patients experiencing grade 3/4 granulocytopenia. In EPT patients, escalation above 70 mg/m2 was not attempted. Fourteen MPT (70%) and six EPT (50%) patients had a > or = 50% decline in serum PSA on two consecutive measurements taken at least 2 weeks apart. The overall 50% PSA response rate was 63% (95% confidence interval [CI], 28% to 81%). Of the 18 patients with bidimensionally measurable disease, five (28%; 95% CI, 11% to 54%) achieved a partial response. At the time of entry onto the study, 15 patients required narcotic analgesics for bone pain; after treatment, eight (53%) discontinued their pain medications. The area under the curve for docetaxel increased linearly from 40 to 70 mg/m2. At 80 mg/m2, the measured area under the curve was 8.37 (standard deviation, 0.724), which was significantly higher than the previously reported values. CONCLUSION: The recommended phase II dose of docetaxel combined with estramustine is 70 mg/m2 in MPT patients and 60 mg/m2 in EPT patients. This combination is active in men with androgen-independent prostate cancer. (+info)