Relaxin is a potent renal vasodilator in conscious rats.
The kidneys and other nonreproductive organs vasodilate during early gestation; however, the "pregnancy hormones" responsible for the profound vasodilation of the renal circulation during pregnancy are unknown. We hypothesized that the ovarian hormone relaxin (RLX) contributes. Therefore, we tested whether the administration of RLX elicits renal vasodilation and hyperfiltration in conscious adult, intact female rats. After several days of treatment with either purified porcine RLX or recombinant human RLX 2 (rhRLX), effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) increased by 20%-40%. Comparable renal vasodilation and hyperfiltration was also observed in ovariectomized rats, suggesting that estrogen and progesterone are unnecessary for the renal response to rhRLX. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester completely abrogated the increase in ERPF and GFR elicited by chronic administration of purified porcine RLX. In contrast, the renal vasoconstrictory response to angiotensin II was attenuated by the RLX treatment. Short-term infusion of purified porcine RLX to conscious rats over several hours failed to increase ERPF and GFR. Plasma osmolality was consistently reduced by the chronic administration of both RLX preparations. In conclusion, the renal and osmoregulatory effects of chronic RLX administration to conscious rats resemble the physiological changes of pregnancy in several respects: (a) marked increases in ERPF and GFR with a mediatory role for nitric oxide; (b) attenuation of the renal circulatory response to angiotensin II; and (c) reduction in plasma osmolality. (+info)
O-raffinose cross-linking markedly reduces systemic and renal vasoconstrictor effects of unmodified human hemoglobin.
The hemodynamic effects of a 20% exchange-transfusion with different solutions of highly purified human hemoglobin A-zero (A0) were evaluated. We compared unmodified hemoglobin with hemoglobin cross-linked with O-raffinose. Unmodified hemoglobin increased systemic vascular resistance and mean arterial pressure more than the O-raffinose cross-linked hemoglobin solution (by approximately 45% and approximately 14%, respectively). Unmodified hemoglobin markedly reduced cardiac output (CO) by approximately 21%, whereas CO was unaffected by the O-raffinose cross-linked hemoglobin solution. Unmodified and O-raffinose cross-linked hemoglobin solutions increased mean arterial pressure to comparable extents ( approximately 14% and approximately 9%, respectively). Unmodified hemoglobin increased renal vascular resistance 2-fold and reduced the glomerular filtration rate by 58%. In marked contrast, the O-raffinose cross-linked hemoglobin had no deleterious effect on the glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, or renal vascular resistance. The extents to which unmodified and O-raffinose cross-linked hemoglobin solutions inactivated nitric oxide also were compared using three separate in vitro assays: platelet nitric oxide release, nitric oxide-stimulated platelet cGMP production, and endothelium-derived relaxing factor-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation. Unmodified hemoglobin inactivated or oxidized nitric oxide to a greater extent than the O-raffinose cross-linked hemoglobin solutions in all three assays. In summary, O-raffinose cross-linking substantially reduced the systemic vasoconstriction and the decrease in CO induced by unmodified hemoglobin and eliminated the deleterious effects of unmodified hemoglobin on renal hemodynamics and function. We hypothesize that O-raffinose cross-linking reduces the degree of oxidation of nitric oxide and that this contributes to the reduced vasoactivity of this modified hemoglobin. (+info)
Septicemia in dialysis patients: incidence, risk factors, and prognosis.
BACKGROUND: Infection is second to cardiovascular disease as a cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and septicemia causes a majority of these infectious deaths. To identify patients at high risk and to characterize modifiable risk factors for septicemia, we examined the incidence, risk factors, and prognosis for septicemia in a large, representative group of U.S. dialysis patients. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of incident ESRD patients in the case-mix study of the U.S. Renal Data System with seven years of follow-up from hospitalization and death records. Poisson regression was used to examine independent risk factors for hospital-managed septicemia. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to assess the independent effect of septicemia on all-cause mortality and on death from septicemia. Separate analyses were performed for patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD). RESULTS: Over seven years of follow-up, 11.7% of 4005 HD patients and 9.4% of 913 PD patients had at least one episode of septicemia. Older age and diabetes were independent risk factors for septicemia in all patients. Among HD patients, low serum albumin, temporary vascular access, and dialyzer reuse were also associated with increased risk. Among PD patients, white race and having no health insurance at dialysis initiation were also risk factors. Patients with septicemia had twice the risk of death from any cause and a fivefold to ninefold increased risk of death from septicemia. CONCLUSIONS: Septicemia, which carries a marked increased risk of death, occurs frequently in patients on PD as well as HD. Early referral to a nephrologist, improving nutrition, and avoiding temporary vascular access may decrease the incidence of septicemia. Further study of how race, insurance status, and dialyzer reuse can contribute to the risk of septicemia among ESRD patients is indicated. (+info)
Evaluation of pulmonary volumetric morphometry at the light and electron microscopy level in several species of passerine birds.
The lungs of 3 small passerine species, having similar body mass but different diurnal activity patterns, were analysed morphometrically to assess the relationship between diurnal activity and pulmonary volumetry at the light and electron microscope levels. The percentage volumes of the major lung and exchange tissue components of the 3 species--an aerial insectivore, a foliage gleaner/nectarivore and a ground forager--were strikingly similar, and consistent with literature values for other passerine species. The only significant difference found was exchange tissue plasma volume and pulmonary haematocrit, with the ground-foraging, low activity Malurus splendens having significantly lower values than the other 2 species. This may indicate that cardiovascular parameters are more important determinants of metabolic activity in small passerines than aspects of pulmonary anatomy. (+info)
Hematocrit correlates with blood pressure in young male office workers.
High hematocrit (Ht) level has been reported to be a correlating factor of hypertension in aged people, but has not been examined in younger generation. To investigate the association between Ht and blood pressure (BP) in healthy young workers, statistical analysis was performed for 646 male employees, using cross-sectional health-check data. Ht was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and with diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by Pearson's simple correlation analysis. Multiple regression analysis for SBP and DBP was conducted by stepwise procedure, using Ht, age, body mass index (BMI), and drinking and smoking habits as independent variables. It was revealed that Ht was a significant independent variable for DBP (p < 0.001), as well as age and BMI, but not for SBP. These findings suggest that increased Ht is an important variable for assessing risk for cardiovascular disorders, especially diastolic hypertension, in young male office workers. (+info)
Maintenance of normal agonist-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in uraemic and hypertensive resistance vessels.
BACKGROUND: The nitric oxide system has been implicated in several diseases with vascular complications including diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Despite the high prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular complications in renal failure few studies have examined vascular and endothelial function in uraemia. We therefore chose to study possible abnormalities of the nitric oxide vasodilator system in an animal model of chronic renal failure. METHODS: Adult spontaneous hypertensive rats and Wistar Kyoto rats were subjected to a 5/6 nephrectomy with control animals having sham operations. After 4 weeks blood pressure was recorded and the animals were sacrificed. Branches of the mesenteric arteries were isolated and mounted on a Mulvany myograph. All experiments were performed in the presence of indomethacin (10(-5) M). The vessels were first preconstricted with noradrenaline, exposed to increasing concentrations of acetylcholine (10(-8) to 10(-4) M) and subsequently to sodium nitroprusside (10(-5) M). RESULTS: There was no difference in the relaxation of the four groups of vessels to any of the concentrations of acetylcholine used nor was there any significant difference in the EC50s (control Wistar Kyoto 6.1+/-1.4 x 10(-8) M; uraemic Wistar Kyoto 5.4+/-0.8 x 10(-8) M; control spontaneous hypertensive rats 4.5+/-0.6 x 10(-8) M; uraemic spontaneous hypertensive rats 6+/-0.7 x 10(-8) M). Vasodilatation in response to sodium nitroprusside was unchanged in uraemic vessels. In addition the vascular responses to both acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were unaltered in spontaneous hypertensive rats. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that normal agonist-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation is maintained in experimental uraemia and hypertension. (+info)
Mechanism for the posture-specific plasma volume increase after a single intense exercise protocol.
To test the hypothesis that exercise-induced hypervolemia is a posture-dependent process, we measured plasma volume, plasma albumin content, and renal function in seven healthy subjects for 22 h after single upright (Up) or supine (Sup) intense (85% peak oxygen consumption rate) exercise. This posture was maintained for 5 h after exercise. Plasma volume decreased during exercise but returned to control levels by 5 h of recovery in both postures. By 22 h of recovery, plasma volume increased 2.4 +/- 0.8 ml/kg in Up but decreased 2.1 +/- 0.8 ml/kg in Sup. The plasma volume expansion in Up was accompanied by an increase in plasma albumin content (0.11 +/- 0.04 g/kg; P < 0.05). Plasma albumin content was unchanged in Sup. Urine volume and sodium clearance were lower in Up than Sup (P < 0.05) by 5 h of recovery. These data suggest that increased plasma albumin content contributes to the acute phase of exercise-induced hypervolemia. More importantly, the mechanism by which exercise influences the distribution of albumin between extra- and intravascular stores after exercise is altered by posture and is unknown. We speculate that factors associated with postural changes (e.g., central venous pressure) modify the increase in plasma albumin content and the plasma volume expansion after exercise. (+info)
Efficacy of recombinant human Hb by 31P-NMR during isovolemic total exchange transfusion.
The ability of recombinant human Hb (rHb1.1), which is being developed as an oxygen therapeutic, to support metabolism was measured by in vivo 31P-NMR surface coil spectroscopy of the rat abdomen in control animals and in animals subjected to isovolemic exchange transfusion to hematocrit of <3% with human serum albumin or 5 g/dl rHb1.1. No significant changes in metabolite levels were observed in control animals for up to 6 h. The albumin-exchange experiments, however, resulted in a more than eightfold increase in Pi and a 50% drop in phosphocreatine and ATP within 40 min. The tissue pH dropped from 7.4 to 6.8. The decrease in high-energy phosphates obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a Michaelis-Menten constant of 3% as the hematocrit at which a 50% drop in high-energy phosphates was observed. Exchange transfusion with rHb1.1 resulted in no significant drop in high-energy phosphates, no rise in Pi, and no change in tissue pH from 7.35 +/- 0.15 for up to 5 h after exchange. By these criteria, rHb1.1 at a plasma Hb concentration of approximately 5 g/dl after total exchange transfusion was able to sustain energy metabolism of gut tissue at levels indistinguishable from control rats with a threefold higher total Hb level in erythrocytes. (+info)