T-cell receptor transgenic analysis of tumor-specific CD8 and CD4 responses in the eradication of solid tumors.
The role of tumor-specific CD8 and CD4 lymphocytes in rejecting solid tumors has been difficult to determine because of the lack of models in which tumor antigen, specific CD8 cells, and specific CD4 cells can be monitored and controlled. To investigate the minimal components required for the induction and maintenance of CTL activity sufficient to reject a solid tumor in vivo, we transfected the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) gene into a nonimmunogenic class I+/class II- murine malignant mesothelioma (MM) tumor line to generate an endogenous tumor antigen and used TCR transgenic mice with class I- or class II-restricted specificities for HA as sources of naive, tumor-specific T cells. The data show that the presence of a strong tumor antigen is not in itself sufficient to induce an effective CTL response, nor does the presence of a high frequency of precursor cells guarantee tumor rejection. We also show that tumor-specific CD4 cells, when CTL numbers are suboptimal, greatly enhance the eradication of tumor, confirming the importance of antigen-presenting cell presentation of tumor antigens to class II-restricted cells. These data confirm that T-cell receptor transgenic cells, combined with nominal tumor antigen transfection, represent powerful tools to analyze tumor-specific T-cell responses. (+info)
Hierarchy of sorting signals in chimeras of intestinal lactase-phlorizin hydrolase and the influenza virus hemagglutinin.
Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) is an apical protein in intestinal cells. The location of sorting signals in LPH was investigated by preparing a series of mutants that lacked the LPH cytoplasmic domain or had the cytoplasmic domain of LPH replaced by sequences that comprised basolateral targeting signals and overlapping internalization signals of various potency. These signals are mutants of the cytoplasmic domain of the influenza hemagglutinin (HA), which have been shown to be dominant in targeting HA to the basolateral membrane. The LPH-HA chimeras were expressed in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cells, and their transport to the cell surface was analyzed. All of the LPH mutants were targeted correctly to the apical membrane. Furthermore, the LPH-HA chimeras were internalized, indicating that the HA tails were available to interact with the cytoplasmic components of clathrin-coated pits. The introduction of a strong basolateral sorting signal into LPH was not sufficient to override the strong apical signals of the LPH external domain or transmembrane domains. These results show that basolateral sorting signals are not always dominant over apical sorting signals in proteins that contain each and suggest that sorting of basolateral from apical proteins occurs within a common compartment where competition for sorting signals can occur. (+info)
Sodium dodecyl sulfate stability of HLA-DR1 complexes correlates with burial of hydrophobic residues in pocket 1.
Certain class II MHC-peptide complexes are resistant to SDS-induced dissociation. This property, which has been used as an in vivo as well as an in vitro peptide binding assay, is not understood at the molecular level. Here we have investigated the mechanistic basis of SDS stability of HLA-DR1 complexes by using a biosensor-based assay and SDS-PAGE with a combination of wild-type and mutant HLA-DR1 and variants of hemagglutinin peptide HA306-318. Experiments with wild-type DR1 along with previously published results establish that the SDS-stable complexes are formed only when the hydrophobic pocket 1 (P1) is occupied by a bulky aromatic (Trp, Phe, Tyr) or an aliphatic residue (Met, Ile, Val, Leu). To further explore whether the SDS sensitivity is primarily due to the exposed hydrophobic regions, we mutated residue beta Gly86 at the bottom of P1 to tyrosine, presumably reducing the depth of the pocket and the exposure of hydrophobic residues and increasing the contacts between subunits. In direct contrast to wild-type DR1, the peptide-free mutant DR1 exists as an alpha/beta heterodimer in SDS. Moreover, the presence of a smaller hydrophobic residue, such as alanine, as P1 anchor with no contribution from any other anchor is sufficient to enhance the SDS stability of the mutant complexes, demonstrating that the basis of SDS resistance may be localized to P1 interactions. The good correlation between SDS sensitivity and the exposure of hydrophobic residues provides a biochemical rationale for the use of this assay to investigate the maturation of class II molecules and the longevity of the complexes. (+info)
Ontogeny of T cell tolerance to peripherally expressed antigens.
Transgenic expression of the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) in the pancreatic islet beta cells of InsHA mice leads to peripheral tolerance of HA-specific T cells. To examine the onset of tolerance, InsHA mice were immunized with influenza virus A/PR/8 at different ages, and the presence of nontolerant T cells was determined by the induction of autoimmune diabetes. The data revealed a neonatal period wherein T cells were not tolerant and influenza virus infection led to HA-specific beta cell destruction and autoimmune diabetes. The ability to induce autoimmunity gradually waned, such that adult mice were profoundly tolerant to viral HA and were protected from diabetes. Because cross-presentation of islet antigens by professional antigen-presenting cells had been reported to induce peripheral tolerance, the temporal relationship between tolerance induction and activation of HA-specific T cells in the lymph nodes draining the pancreas was examined. In tolerant adult mice, but not in 1-week-old neonates, activation and proliferation of HA-specific CD8(+) T cells occurred in the pancreatic lymph nodes. Thus, lack of tolerance in the perinatal period correlated with lack of activation of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. This work provides evidence for the developmental regulation of peripheral tolerance induction. (+info)
The MAL proteolipid is necessary for normal apical transport and accurate sorting of the influenza virus hemagglutinin in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.
The MAL (MAL/VIP17) proteolipid is a nonglycosylated integral membrane protein expressed in a restricted pattern of cell types, including T lymphocytes, myelin-forming cells, and polarized epithelial cells. Transport of the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) to the apical surface of epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells appears to be mediated by a pathway involving glycolipid- and cholesterol- enriched membranes (GEMs). In MDCK cells, MAL has been proposed previously as being an element of the protein machinery for the GEM-dependent apical transport pathway. Using an antisense oligonucleotide-based strategy and a newly generated monoclonal antibody to canine MAL, herein we have approached the effect of MAL depletion on HA transport in MDCK cells. We have found that MAL depletion diminishes the presence of HA in GEMs, reduces the rate of HA transport to the cell surface, inhibits the delivery of HA to the apical surface, and produces partial missorting of HA to the basolateral membrane. These effects were corrected by ectopic expression of MAL in MDCK cells whose endogenous MAL protein was depleted. Our results indicate that MAL is necessary for both normal apical transport and accurate sorting of HA. (+info)
Recombinant influenza A virus vaccines for the pathogenic human A/Hong Kong/97 (H5N1) viruses.
Recombinant reassortment technology was used to prepare H5N1 influenza vaccine strains containing a modified hemagglutinin (HA) gene and neuraminidase gene from the A/Hong Kong/156/97 and A/Hong Kong/483/97 isolates and the internal genes from the attenuated cold-adapted A/Ann Arbor/6/60 influenza virus strain. The HA cleavage site (HA1/HA2) of each H5N1 isolate was modified to resemble that of "low-pathogenic" avian strains. Five of 6 basic amino acids at the cleavage site were deleted, and a threonine was added upstream of the remaining arginine. The H5 HA cleavage site modification resulted in the expected trypsin-dependent phenotype without altering the antigenic character of the H5 HA molecule. The temperature-sensitive and cold-adapted phenotype of the attenuated parent virus was maintained in the recombinant strains, and they grew to 108.5-9.4 EID50/mL in eggs. Both H5N1 vaccine virus strains were safe and immunogenic in ferrets and protected chickens against wild-type H5N1 virus challenge. (+info)
Phylogenetic analysis of H7 avian influenza viruses isolated from the live bird markets of the Northeast United States.
The presence of low-pathogenic H7 avian influenza virus (AIV), which is associated with live-bird markets (LBM) in the Northeast United States, was first detected in 1994 and, despite efforts to eradicate the virus, surveillance of these markets has resulted in numerous isolations of H7 AIVs from several states from 1994 through 1998. The hemagglutinin, nonstructural, and matrix genes from representative H7 isolates from the LBM and elsewhere were sequenced, and the sequences were compared phylogenetically. The hemagglutinin gene of most LBM isolates examined appeared to have been the result of a single introduction of the hemagglutinin gene. Evidence for evolutionary changes were observed with three definable steps. The first isolate from 1994 had the amino acid threonine at the -2 position of the hemagglutinin cleavage site, which is the most commonly observed amino acid at this site for North American H7 AIVs. In January 1995 a new genotype with a proline at the -2 position was detected, and this genotype eventually became the predominant virus isolate. A third viral genotype, detected in November 1996, had an eight-amino-acid deletion within the putative receptor binding site. This viral genotype appeared to be the predominant isolate, although isolates with proline at the -2 position without the deletion were still observed in viruses from the last sampling date. Evidence for reassortment of multiple viral genes was evident. The combination of possible adaptive evolution of the virus and reassortment with different influenza virus genes makes it difficult to determine the risk of pathogenesis of this group of H7 AIVs. (+info)
Attenuated vesicular stomatitis viruses as vaccine vectors.
We showed previously that a single intranasal vaccination of mice with a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing an influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) protein provided complete protection from lethal challenge with influenza virus (A. Roberts, E. Kretzschmar, A. S. Perkins, J. Forman, R. Price, L. Buonocore, Y. Kawaoka, and J. K. Rose, J. Virol. 72:4704-4711, 1998). Because some pathogenesis was associated with the vector itself, in the present study we generated new VSV vectors expressing HA which are completely attenuated for pathogenesis in the mouse model. The first vector has a truncation of the cytoplasmic domain of the VSV G protein and expresses influenza virus HA (CT1-HA). This nonpathogenic vector provides complete protection from lethal influenza virus challenge after intranasal administration. A second vector with VSV G deleted and expressing HA (DeltaG-HA) is also protective and nonpathogenic and has the advantage of not inducing neutralizing antibodies to the vector itself. (+info)