Human mannan-binding lectin inhibits the infection of influenza A virus without complement.
Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a C-type serum lectin that is believed to play an important role in innate immunity. It is one of the collectin family, which is characterized by having a collagen-like sequence and a carbohydrate recognition domain. MBL can bind to sugar determinants of several micro-organisms, neutralize them and inhibit infection by complement activation through the lectin pathway and opsonization by collectin receptors. Bovine conglutinin and mouse MBL inhibit the infective and haemagglutinating activities of influenza A viruses. To identify the direct antiviral activity of human MBL against influenza A viruses that does not depend on complement activation or opsonization, we isolated native MBL from human serum and produced a recombinant MBL in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using a pNOW/CMV-A expression vector system. Native and recombinant human MBL exhibited neutralization activity against A/Ibaraki/1/90 (H3N2), with the plaque focus reduction assay at the viral attachment phase. Their activities were inhibited by EDTA, mannose and anti-human MBL antibody. Furthermore, at the viral expansion phase both MBL in culture medium prevented viral spreading from primary infected cells to neighbour cells. A virus recovery study using EDTA indicated that interaction between MBL and virus was reversible and non-damaging to the virus. Lectin blot and immunohistochemistry assays showed that these antiviral activities involved binding between MBL and two viral envelope proteins, haemagglutinin and neuraminidase. These findings suggest that human MBL can play an important role in innate immunity by direct viral neutralization and inhibition of viral spread, as well as an indirect role through opsonization and complement activation. (+info)
Genetic analysis reveals that both haemagglutinin and neuraminidase determine the sensitivity of naturally occurring avian influenza viruses to zanamivir in vitro.
The basis of differential sensitivity of replication of influenza viruses to the neuraminidase-specific inhibitor zanamivir was examined using four avian influenza viruses and reassortants produced between them. IC(50) values for inhibition of neuraminidase activity by zanamivir were similar for each of the four viruses, whereas the haemagglutinating activity of each of the viruses was relatively insensitive to zanamivir. However, the four viruses showed distinct zanamivir-sensitivity profiles in tissue culture. Analysis of the reassortant viruses showed that sensitivity was determined by the haemagglutinin gene (segment 4) and the neuraminidase gene (segment 6) and was independent of the remaining six RNA segments. Decreased sensitivity to zanamivir was associated with possession of a haemagglutinin that is released from cells with decreased dependence on neuraminidase and with possession of a neuraminidase that has a short stalk region. (+info)
Comparative analysis of virus-host cell interactions of haemagglutinating and non-haemagglutinating strains of coxsackievirus B3.
Decay-accelerating factor (DAF/CD55), and coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) have been identified as cellular receptors for coxsackie B viruses (CBV). To elucidate the interplay of DAF and CAR on the cell surface, virus-receptor interactions of two coxsackieviruses of serotype B3 (non-haemagglutinating CBV3 and haemagglutinating CBV3-HA strain) were analysed. Binding assays revealed clear differences between these viruses with regard to their interactions with DAF and CAR. However, only the combination of anti-DAF and anti-CAR antibodies resulted in complete inhibition of virus binding for both strains. In plaque-reduction assays, anti-DAF antibodies had no effect, whereas CAR-specific antibodies significantly reduced productive infection of HeLa cells by both viruses. Interestingly, a synergistic inhibitory effect of anti-DAF and anti-CAR antibodies was also observed with regard to infection. These findings support the model of preferential interactions of both strains of CBV3 with closely associated DAF and CAR proteins on HeLa cells, despite displaying clear differences in their binding phenotypes. (+info)
Evolution of swine H3N2 influenza viruses in the United States.
During 1998, severe outbreaks of influenza were observed in four swine herds in the United States. This event was unique because the causative agents, H3N2 influenza viruses, are infrequently isolated from swine in North America. Two antigenically distinct reassortant viruses (H3N2) were isolated from infected animals: a double-reassortant virus containing genes similar to those of human and swine viruses, and a triple-reassortant virus containing genes similar to those of human, swine, and avian influenza viruses (N. N. Zhou, D. A. Senne, J. S. Landgraf, S. L. Swenson, G. Erickson, K. Rossow, L. Liu, K.-J. Yoon, S. Krauss, and R. G. Webster, J. Virol. 73:8851-8856, 1999). Because the U.S. pig population was essentially naive in regard to H3N2 viruses, it was important to determine the extent of viral spread. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays of 4, 382 serum samples from swine in 23 states indicated that 28.3% of these animals had been exposed to classical swine-like H1N1 viruses and 20.5% had been exposed to the triple-reassortant-like H3N2 viruses. The HI data suggested that viruses antigenically related to the double-reassortant H3N2 virus have not become widespread in the U.S. swine population. The seroreactivity levels in swine serum samples and the nucleotide sequences of six additional 1999 isolates, all of which were of the triple-reassortant genotype, suggested that H3N2 viruses containing avian PA and PB2 genes had spread throughout much of the country. These avian-like genes cluster with genes from North American avian viruses. The worldwide predominance of swine viruses containing an avian-like internal gene component suggests that these genes may confer a selective advantage in pigs. Analysis of the 1999 swine H3N2 isolates showed that the internal gene complex of the triple-reassortant viruses was associated with three recent phylogenetically distinct human-like hemagglutinin (HA) molecules. Acquisition of HA genes from the human virus reservoir will significantly affect the efficacy of the current swine H3N2 vaccines. This finding supports continued surveillance of U.S. swine populations for influenza virus activity. (+info)
Evidence against the acidification hypothesis in cystic fibrosis.
The pleiotropic effects of cystic fibrosis (CF) result from the mislocalization or inactivity of an apical membrane chloride channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). CFTR may also modulate intracellular chloride conductances and thus affect organelle pH. To test the role of CFTR in organelle pH regulation, we developed a model system to selectively perturb the pH of a subset of acidified compartments in polarized cells and determined the effects on various protein trafficking steps. We then tested whether these effects were observed in cells lacking wild-type CFTR and whether reintroduction of CFTR affected trafficking in these cells. Our model system involves adenovirus-mediated expression of the influenza virus M2 protein, an acid-activated ion channel. M2 expression selectively slows traffic through the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and apical endocytic compartments in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Expression of M2 or treatment with other pH perturbants also slowed protein traffic in the CF cell line CFPAC, suggesting that the TGN in this cell line is normally acidified. Expression of functional CFTR had no effect on traffic and failed to rescue the effect of M2. Our results argue against a role for CFTR in the regulation of organelle pH and protein trafficking in epithelial cells. (+info)
Agglutination of Japanese encephalitis virus with concanavalin A.
Results of experiments have indicated that reduction in biological activities at high concentrations of Japanese encephalitis virus is caused by aggregates of the virus by concanavalin A. The possibility exists that the concanavalin A binding site is different from hemagglutination and antireceptor sites of Japanese encephalitis virus. (+info)
Infection of human airway epithelia with H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 influenza A virus strains.
Three subtypes of influenza A virus cause human disease: H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2. Although all result in respiratory illness, little is known about how these subtypes infect differentiated airway epithelia. Therefore, we assayed A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), A/Japan/305/57 (H2N2), and X31 (H3N2) influenza virus strains for binding and infection on fully differentiated primary cultures of airway epithelia isolated from human bronchus, grown on semiporous filters at an air-liquid interface. In this model system, viral infectivity was highest when virus was applied to the apical versus the basolateral surface; Japan was most infectious, followed by PR8. The X31 strain showed very low levels of infectivity. Confocal microscopy and fluorescence-resonance energy transfer studies indicated that Japan virus could enter and fuse with cellular membranes, while infection with X31 virions was greatly inhibited. Japan virus could also productively infect human trachea explant tissues. These data show that influenza viruses with SAalpha2,3Gal binding specificity, like Japan, productively infect differentiated human airway epithelia from the apical surface. These data are important to consider in the development of pseudotyped recombinant viral vectors for gene transfer to human airway epithelia for gene therapy. (+info)
Hemagglutinin residues of recent human A(H3N2) influenza viruses that contribute to the inability to agglutinate chicken erythrocytes.
To identify the molecular determinants contributing to the inability of recent human influenza A(H3N2) viruses to agglutinate chicken erythrocytes, phenotypic revertants were selected upon passage in eggs or MDCK cells. The Leu194Ile or Val226Ile substitutions were detected in their hemagglutinin (HA) sequence concomitantly with the phenotypic reversion. Remarkably, as little as 3.5% of variants bearing a Val226Ile substitution was found to confer the ability to agglutinate chicken erythrocytes to the virus population. Hemadsorption assays following transient expression of mutated HA proteins showed that the successive Gln226 --> Leu --> Ile --> Val changes observed on natural isolates resulted in a progressive loss of the ability of the HA to bind chicken erythrocytes. The Val226Ile change maintained the preference of the HA for SAalpha2,6Gal over SAalpha2,3Gal and enhanced binding of the HA to alpha2,6Gal receptors present on chicken erythrocytes. In contrast, simultaneous Ser193Arg and Leu194Ile substitutions that were found to confer the ability to agglutinate sheep erythrocytes increased the affinity of the HA for SAalpha2,3Gal. (+info)