The indirect hemagglutination test for the detection of antibodies in cattle naturally infected mycoplasmas.
Stable mycoplasma antigens for the indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) were prepared employing glutaraldehyde treated sheep erythrocytes sensitized with Mycoplasma agalactiae subsp. bovis and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium antigens. Employing these antigens mycoplasma antibodies were detected in sera from cattle which had mastitic symptoms due to natural infection with either M. agalactiae subsp. bovis or M. bovigenitalium. A total of 200 cows from four herds were examined at varying intervals for the presence of M. agalactiae subsp. bovis and for the detection of antibody using growth inhibition and IHA tests. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 37 animals. Growth inhibiting antibody was detected from 56 of the 200 animals. In the IHA tests, antibody titer greater than or equal to 1:80 were detected in 148 animals, 76 of these having antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:160, while sera of 116 normal control animals had no growth inhibiting antibody and none had IHA antibody titers greater than 1:40. M. bovigenitalium was isolated from the milk of three of 26 animals in a fifth herd during an outbreak of mastitis. Growth inhibiting antibodies were demonstrated in the sera of ten of the 26 animals. However, the IHA test detected antibody titers of greater than or equal to 1:160 in 13 animals and of 1:80 in one of the 26 animals. To determine the specificity of the IHA tests, M. agalactiae subsp. bovis and M. bovigenitalium antigens were reacted with rabbit hyperimmune typing sera produced against 12 species of bovine mycoplasmatales. Homologous antisera showed IHA antibody titers of 1:1280 and 1:2560 against M. agalactiae subsp. bovis and M. bovigenitalium respectively, whereas heterologous antisera showed IHA antibody titers of less than or equal to 1:20. Also eight type-specific bovine antisera were reacted with M agalactiae subsp. bovis and M. bovigenitalium antigens in homologous and heterologous tests. Homoogous reactions showed IHA antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:320, whereas heterologous reactions showed IHA titers of less than or equal to 1:20. This IHA test promises to be useful for the detection of bovine mycoplasma antibodies in sera from cattle infected with M. agalactiae subsp. bovis or M. bovigenitalium. Thes test is sensitive, reproducible and specific and the technique is relatively simple and rapid. The antigens were stable for at least seven months. (+info)
Immunological comparison of the proteins of chicken and rat liver ribosomes.
A comparison of the proteins of chicken and rat liver ribosomes using immunochemical techniques was undertaken. The procedures included quantitative precipitation, passive hemagglutination, and immunodiffusion on Ouchterlony plates. The results indicate that antisera specific for chicken or rat liver ribosomes recognize only about 20% of common determinants. While there are important reservations, the results suggest extensive differences in the proteins of rat and chicken liver ribosomes. Despite those differences, rat and chicken liver ribosomal proteins maintain some homologous sequences present in bacterial ribosomal proteins. An enriched antibody preparation against chicken 80 S ribosomes inhibited the poly(U)-directed synthesis of polyphenylalanine and the elongation factor G (EF-G)-catalyzed binding of [3H]GDP to Escherichia coli ribosomes. Thus, chicken liver ribosomes, like ribosomes from rat liver and yeast, must have proteins homologous with those of E. coli ribosomes. (+info)
Enterobacterial common antigen: isolation from Shigella sonnei, purification and immunochemical characterization.
In the studies presented the effective procedure of isolation and purification of enterobacterial common antigen from Shigella sonnei has been elaborated. The method is based on sonification of bacterial suspension in the presence of lysozyme and EDTA and subsequent extraction of the pellet with boiling water. The crude extract of common antigen was purified by fractionation with ethanol and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. The comparison of several extraction procedures of enterobacterial common antigen from Shigella sonnei proved that the method described above is most effective. The purified enterobacterial common antigen preparation obtained preserved full biological activity: antigenicity (precipitation and activity in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), immunogenicity in rabbits, ability to coat erythrocytes (passive hemagglutination) and inhibitory activity in passive hemagglutination. The pure enterobacterial common antigen was identified to 90% as a polymer of N-acetyl-D-mannosaminuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (2:1, molar ratio), O-acetylated and containing 3.2% fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:1, not oleic). It contains 5.3% nitrogen, less than 4% protein, less than 0.5% phosphorus and less than 1.6% neutral sugar; glycerol and RNA were not found in the preparation. (+info)
Specific suppression of delayed hypersensitivity skin reactions to collagen in guinea-pigs after immunization with collagen and Freund's incomplete adjuvant.
Partial suppression of cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity reactions to collagen in guinea-pigs was induced by pre-immunization with collagen and FIA. This suppression is specific since: (a) pretreatment with OA and FIA or FIA alone did not cause suppression of skin reactions to collagen; (b) suppression was observed only if the collagen used for pretreatment was from the same species as that employed for sensitization for delayed hypersensitivity reactions; and (c) animals with depressed skin reactivity to collagen reacted normally to PPD. The suppression is not mediated by inducible, circulating antibodies to collagen since: (a) antibody titres measured by passive haemagglutination did not correlate with the degree of suppression; (b) suppression was observed with collagen in random coil conformation which sensitizes guinea-pigs for delayed hypersensitivity skin reaction but does not induce antibodies to denatured collagen; (c) best suppression was obtained if the animals were pretreated with collagen and FIA 3 days before the sensitizing injection; and (d) passively transferred antibody from animals with suppressed skin reactivity did not suppress skin reactivity of animals made hypersensitive to collagen by injection of collagen and FCA. (+info)
PCR detection of Yersinia pestis in fleas: comparison with mouse inoculation.
The "gold standard" for identifying Yersinia pestis-infected fleas has been inoculation of mice with pooled flea material. Inoculated mice are monitored for 21 days, and those that die are further analyzed for Y. pestis infection by fluorescent-antibody assay and/or culture. PCR may provide a more rapid and sensitive alternative for identifying Y. pestis in fleas. To compare these assays, samples were prepared from 381 field-collected fleas. Each flea was analyzed individually by both PCR and mouse inoculation. Sixty of the 381 flea samples were positive for Y. pestis by PCR; 48 of these PCR-positive samples caused death in mice (80.0% agreement). None of the 321 PCR-negative samples caused death. Among the 12 mice that survived inoculation with PCR-positive samples, 10 were later demonstrated by serology or culture to have been infected with Y. pestis. This suggests that death of inoculated mice is less reliable than PCR as an indicator of the presence of Y. pestis in flea samples. Mouse inoculation assays produce results that are comparable to PCR only when surviving as well as dead mice are analyzed for infection. The rapidity and sensitivity (10 to 100 CFU of Y. pestis) of PCR suggest that it could serve as a useful alternative to mouse inoculation for routine plague surveillance and outbreak investigations. (+info)
A new method for rapid identification of influenza virus isolates.
With the use of bacteria sensitized by influenza virus strain-specific antisera, virus isolates can be identified rapidly. One drop of virus suspension is mixed with one drop of sensitized bacteria on a slide that is then agitated; reaction occurs within 10 minutes. The test is subtype-specific. The mehod is based on the fact that the cell wall of the Cowan type 1 strain of Staphylococcus aureus contains abundant quantities of an antigen, known as protein A, that reacts with the IgG molecule by binding it in such a manner that the antibody-combining sites remain free. If an antigen homologous to the antibody coated on the surface of the bacteria is added to the suspension of sensitized staphylococci, agglutination occurs. (+info)
Enzymically inactive members of the trans-sialidase family from Trypanosoma cruzi display beta-galactose binding activity.
trans-sialidase is a unique sialidase in that, instead of hydrolizing sialic acid, it preferentially transfers the monosaccharide to a terminal beta-galactose in glycoproteins and glycolipids. This enzyme, originally identified in Trypanosoma cruzi, belongs to a large family of proteins. Some members of the family lack the enzymatic activity. No function has been yet assigned to them. In this work, the gene copy number and the possible function of inactive members of the trans -sialidase family was studied. It is shown that genes encoding inactive members are not a few, but rather, are present in the same copy number (60-80 per haploid genome) as those encoding active trans -sialidases. Recombinant inactive proteins were purified and assayed for sialic acid and galactose binding activity in agglutination tests. The enzymatically inactive trans -sialidases were found to agglutinate de-sialylated erythrocytes but not untreated red blood cells. Assays made with mouse and rabbit red blood cells suggest that inactive trans -sialidases bind to beta, rather than alpha, terminal galactoses, the same specificity required by active trans -sialidases. A recombinant molecule that was made enzymatically inactive through a mutation in a single amino acid also retained the galactose binding activity. The binding was competed by lactose and was dependent on conservation of the protein native conformation. Therefore, at least some molecules in the trans -sialidase family that have lost their enzymatic function still retain their Gal-binding properties and might have a function as lectins in the parasite-host interaction. (+info)
Processing, targeting, and antifungal activity of stinging nettle agglutinin in transgenic tobacco.
The gene encoding the precursor to stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L. ) isolectin I was introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). In transgenic plants this precursor was processed to mature-sized lectin. The mature isolectin is deposited intracellularly, most likely in the vacuoles. A gene construct lacking the C-terminal 25 amino acids was also introduced in tobacco to study the role of the C terminus in subcellular trafficking. In tobacco plants that expressed this construct, the mutant precursor was correctly processed and the mature isolectin was targeted to the intercellular space. These results indicate the presence of a C-terminal signal for intracellular retention of stinging nettle lectin and most likely for sorting of the lectin to the vacuoles. In addition, correct processing of this lectin did not depend on vacuolar deposition. Isolectin I purified from tobacco displayed identical biological activities as isolectin I isolated from stinging nettle. In vitro antifungal assays on germinated spores of the fungi Botrytis cinerea, Trichoderma viride, and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum revealed that growth inhibition by stinging nettle isolectin I occurs at a specific phase of fungal growth and is temporal, suggesting that the fungi had an adaptation mechanism. (+info)