Increased insensible water loss in newborn infants nursed under radiant heaters.
Urine osmolality was studied in 38 babies nursed in conventional incubators or cots and 18 nursed under an overhead radiant heat shield. Among 50 babies receiving a similar fluid intake in the first 48 hours of life mean urinary osmolality was significantly higher in the radiant heater group. In babies weighing less than 1500 g a trend towards higher urinary osmolalities was recorded in those nursed under radiant heaters even though they had received amost double the fluid intake of the incubator group. Severe hypernatraemia occurred in four of the five babies weighing less than 1000 g who were nursed under radiant heaters but in none of the seven babies of similar birth weight nursed in incubators. These findings are consistent with previous observations of an increase in insensible water loss in babies nursed under radiant heaters and emphasise the importance of providing enough extra water for these infants and the need for close monitoring of their fluid balance. The latter may be done at the bedside by measuring urinary specific gravity with a hand refractometer. (+info)
In vivo chaperone activity of heat shock protein 70 and thermotolerance.
Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is thought to play a critical role in the thermotolerance of mammalian cells, presumably due to its chaperone activity. We examined the chaperone activity and cellular heat resistance of a clonal cell line in which overexpression of Hsp70 was transiently induced by means of the tetracycline-regulated gene expression system. This single-cell-line approach circumvents problems associated with clonal variation and indirect effects resulting from constitutive overexpression of Hsp70. The in vivo chaperone function of Hsp70 was quantitatively investigated by using firefly luciferase as a reporter protein. Chaperone activity was found to strictly correlate to the level of Hsp70 expression. In addition, we observed an Hsp70 concentration dependent increase in the cellular heat resistance. In order to study the contribution of the Hsp70 chaperone activity, heat resistance of cells that expressed tetracycline-regulated Hsp70 was compared to thermotolerant cells expressing the same level of Hsp70 plus all of the other heat shock proteins. Overexpression of Hsp70 alone was sufficient to induce a similar recovery of cytoplasmic luciferase activity, as does expression of all Hsps in thermotolerant cells. However, when the luciferase reporter protein was directed to the nucleus, expression of Hsp70 alone was not sufficient to yield the level of recovery observed in thermotolerant cells. In addition, cells expressing the same level of Hsp70 found in heat-induced thermotolerant cells containing additional Hsps showed increased resistance to thermal killing but were more sensitive than thermotolerant cells. These results suggest that the inducible form of Hsp70 contributes to the stress-tolerant state by increasing the chaperone activity in the cytoplasm. However, its expression alone is apparently insufficient for protection of other subcellular compartments to yield clonal heat resistance to the level observed in thermotolerant cells. (+info)
Indoor, outdoor, and regional summer and winter concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO4(2)-, H+, NH4+, NO3-, NH3, and nitrous acid in homes with and without kerosene space heaters.
Twenty-four-hour samples of PM10 (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm), PM2.5, (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm), particle strong acidity (H+), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), ammonia (NH3), nitrous acid (HONO), and sulfur dioxide were collected inside and outside of 281 homes during winter and summer periods. Measurements were also conducted during summer periods at a regional site. A total of 58 homes of nonsmokers were sampled during the summer periods and 223 homes were sampled during the winter periods. Seventy-four of the homes sampled during the winter reported the use of a kerosene heater. All homes sampled in the summer were located in southwest Virginia. All but 20 homes sampled in the winter were also located in southwest Virginia; the remainder of the homes were located in Connecticut. For homes without tobacco combustion, the regional air monitoring site (Vinton, VA) appeared to provide a reasonable estimate of concentrations of PM2.5 and SO42- during summer months outside and inside homes within the region, even when a substantial number of the homes used air conditioning. Average indoor/outdoor ratios for PM2.5 and SO42- during the summer period were 1.03 +/- 0.71 and 0.74 +/- 0.53, respectively. The indoor/outdoor mean ratio for sulfate suggests that on average approximately 75% of the fine aerosol indoors during the summer is associated with outdoor sources. Kerosene heater use during the winter months, in the absence of tobacco combustion, results in substantial increases in indoor concentrations of PM2.5, SO42-, and possibly H+, as compared to homes without kerosene heaters. During their use, we estimated that kerosene heaters added, on average, approximately 40 microg/m3 of PM2.5 and 15 microg/m3 of SO42- to background residential levels of 18 and 2 microg/m3, respectively. Results from using sulfuric acid-doped Teflon (E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, DE) filters in homes with kerosene heaters suggest that acid particle concentrations may be substantially higher than those measured because of acid neutralization by ammonia. During the summer and winter periods indoor concentrations of ammonia are an order of magnitude higher indoors than outdoors and appear to result in lower indoor acid particle concentrations. Nitrous acid levels are higher indoors than outdoors during both winter and summer and are substantially higher in homes with unvented combustion sources. (+info)
Bacterial formate dehydrogenase. Increasing the enzyme thermal stability by hydrophobization of alpha-helices.
NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase (EC 184.108.40.206, FDH) from methylotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas sp.101 exhibits the highest stability among the similar type enzymes studied. To obtain further increase in the thermal stability of FDH we used one of general approaches based on hydrophobization of protein alpha-helices. Five serine residues in positions 131, 160, 168, 184 and 228 were selected for mutagenesis on the basis of (i) comparative studies of nine FDH amino acid sequences from different sources and (ii) with the analysis of the ternary structure of the enzyme from Pseudomonas sp.101. Residues Ser-131 and Ser-160 were replaced by Ala, Val and Leu. Residues Ser-168, Ser-184 and Ser-228 were changed into Ala. Only Ser/Ala mutations in positions 131, 160, 184 and 228 resulted in an increase of the FDH stability. Mutant S168A was 1.7 times less stable than the wild-type FDH. Double mutants S(131,160)A and S(184,228)A and the four-point mutant S(131,160,184,228)A were also prepared and studied. All FDH mutants with a positive stabilization effect had the same kinetic parameters as wild-type enzyme. Depending on the position of the replaced residue, the single point mutation Ser/Ala increased the FDH stability by 5-24%. Combination of mutations shows near additive effect of each mutation to the total FDH stabilization. Four-point mutant S(131,160,184,228)A FDH had 1.5 times higher thermal stability compared to the wild-type enzyme. (+info)
The role of domestic factors and day-care attendance on lung function of primary school children.
The results of studies examining the relationship of domestic factors to lung function are contradictory. We therefore examined the independent effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), the presence of a cat, type of heating and cooking used in the home and day-care attendance on lung function after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES). Nine hundred and eighty-nine children from 18 Montreal schools were studied between April 1990 and November 1992. Information on the child's health and exposure to domestic factors was collected by questionnaire. Spirometry was performed at school. The data were analysed by multiple linear regression with percent predicted FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC as dependent variables. In the overall sample (both sexes combined), cat in the home (regression coefficient, beta = -1.15, 95% confidence interval, CI: -2.26-(-)0.05) and electric baseboard units (beta = -1.26, 95% CI: -2.39-(-)0.13) were independently associated with a lower FEV1/FVC, while day-care attendance (beta = -2.05, 95% CI: -3.71-(-)0.40) significantly reduced FEV1. Household ETS was significantly associated with increasing level of FVC (beta = 2.86, 95% CI: +0.55 to +5.17). In boys but not girls, household ETS (beta = -2.13, 95% CI: -4.07-(-)0.19) and the presence of a cat (beta = -2.19, 95% CI: -3.94-(-)0.45) were associated with lower FEV1/FVC. By contrast, day-care attendance was associated with lower FEV1 (beta = -2.92, 95% CI: -5.27-(-)0.56) and FEV1/FVC (beta = -1.53, 95% CI: -2.73-(-)0.33) in girls only. In conclusion, the results provide evidence that domestic factors and day-care attendance primarily affected airway caliber and gender differences were apparent in the effects of these factors. (+info)
Key role of barstar Cys-40 residue in the mechanism of heat denaturation of bacterial ribonuclease complexes with barstar.
The mechanism by which barnase and binase are stabilized in their complexes with barstar and the role of the Cys-40 residue of barstar in that stabilization have been investigated by scanning microcalorimetry. Melting of ribonuclease complexes with barstar and its Cys-82-Ala mutant is described by two 2-state transitions. The lower-temperature one corresponds to barstar denaturation and the higher-temperature transition to ribonuclease melting. The barstar mutation Cys-40-Ala, which is within the principal barnase-binding region of barstar, simplifies the melting to a single 2-state transition. The presence of residue Cys-40 in barstar results in additional stabilization of ribonuclease in the complex. (+info)
Teratogen-induced cell death in postimplantation mouse embryos: differential tissue sensitivity and hallmarks of apoptosis.
Teratogen-induced cell death is a common event in the pathogenesis associated with tissues destined to be malformed. Although the importance of this cell death is recognized, little information is available concerning the biochemistry of teratogen-induced cell death. We show that three teratogens, hyperthermia, cyclophosphamide and sodium arsenite induce an increase in cell death in day 9.0 mouse embryos with concurrent induction of DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase-3 and the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Teratogen-induced cell death is also selective, i. e., some cells within a tissue die while others survive. In addition, cells within some tissues die when exposed to teratogens while cells in other tissues are relatively resistant to teratogen-induced cell death. An example of the latter selectivity is seen in the cells of the developing heart, which are resistant to the cytotoxic potential of many teratogens. We show that the absence of cell death in the heart is accompanied by the complete lack of DNA fragmentation, activtion of caspase-3 and the cleavage of PARP. (+info)
Comparison between tracheal tubes for orotracheal fibreoptic intubation.
We have compared impingement of the tracheal tube against the larynx using a standard preformed tube, warmed preformed tube or two flexible spiral-wound tracheal tubes with different tip designs, in 100 adult patients undergoing orotracheal fibreoptic intubation under general anaesthesia, in a prospective, randomized study. The rates of impingement were 20 of 30 with the standard tube, 12 of 30 with the warmed standard tube (P = 0.07) and eight of 20 with both spiral tubes. However, impingement with the spiral tubes took longer to overcome if a sharp tipped rather than an obtuse tipped tube was used. Manipulations after impaction led to oesophageal intubation in one patient, and in one patient fibreoptic intubation failed. We conclude that resistance to the tracheal tube occurred frequently when the spiral-wound tubes were used. (+info)