OPENWIDE: an innovative oral health program for non-dental health and human services providers.
Emerging awareness of the nature and severity of oral diseases and disorders and their serious impact on overall health and well-being, combined with a nationwide crisis in access to oral health care for populations with the most and worst disease, makes it imperative that non-dental health and childcare professionals engage more fully in oral health promotion and disease prevention. OPENWIDE is a comprehensive training program designed to help achieve this goal. The Connecticut Department of Public Health has trained more than 2,000 individuals during the first year of the OPENWIDE program. This article reports on successes and impediments to training and implementation encountered in the early stages of OPENWIDE and makes recommendations to improve the curriculum and its delivery to families and children. (+info)
A debriefing session with a nutritionist can improve dietary assessment using food diaries.
The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of a debriefing call on nutrient intake estimates using two 3-d food diaries among women participating in the Women's Health and Interview Study (WISH) Diet Validation Study. Subjects were 207 women with complete data and six 24-h recalls (24-HR) by telephone over 8 mo followed by two 3-d food diaries during the next 4 mo. Nutrient intake was assessed using the food diaries before and after a debriefing session by telephone. The purpose of the debriefing call was to obtain more detailed information on the types and amounts of fat in the diet. However, due to the ubiquitous nature of fat in the diet, the debriefing involved providing more specific detail on many aspects of the diet. There was a significant difference in macronutrient and micronutrient intake estimates after the debriefing. Estimates of protein, carbohydrate, and fiber intake were significantly higher and total fat, monounsaturated fat, saturated fat, vitamin A, vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol, folic acid, and calcium intake were significantly lower after the debriefing (P < 0.05). The limits of agreement between the food diaries before and after the debriefing were especially large for total fat intake, which could be under- or overestimated by approximately 15 g/d. The debriefing call improved attenuation coefficients associated with measurement error for vitamin C, folic acid, iron, alpha tocopherol, vitamin A, and calcium estimates. A hypothetical relative risk (RR) = 2.0 could be attenuated to 1.16 for folic acid intake assessed without a debriefing but to only 1.61 with a debriefing. Depending on the nutrients of interest, the inclusion of a debriefing can reduce the potential attenuation of RR in studies evaluating diet disease associations. (+info)
Promoting culturally appropriate colorectal cancer screening through a health educator: a randomized controlled trial.
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality in the US. Surveys reveal low CRC screening levels among Asians in the US, including Chinese Americans. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted with Chinese patients to evaluate a clinic-based, culturally and linguistically appropriate intervention promoting fecal occult blood test (FOBT) screening. The multifaceted intervention included a trilingual and bicultural health educator, bilingual materials (a video, a motivational pamphlet, an informational pamphlet, and FOBT instructions), and three FOBT cards. Patients in the control arm received usual care. Our primary outcome measure was FOBT screening within 6 months after randomization. The proportion of FOBT completion in the intervention and control arms was compared by using a chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis was performed to adjust for the effects of sociodemographic variables and prior screening history. Potential effect modifications were also tested by using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Our intervention had a strong effect on FOBT completion (intervention group, 69.5%; control group, 27.6%), and the adjusted odds of FOBT slightly increased to over 6-fold greater in the intervention arm compared with the control arm. No effect modification by age, gender, language, insurance, or prior FOBT was found. CONCLUSIONS: The authors' multifaceted, culturally appropriate intervention significantly increased FOBT screening in a group of low-income and less-acculturated minority patients. Given the large effect size, future research should determine the effective core component(s) that can increase CRC screening in both the general and minority populations. (+info)
Differences in perceived implementation of a standard versus peer-led interactive substance abuse prevention program.
OBJECTIVE: To assess perceived implementation of 2 substance-abuse prevention programs: a standard one and a peer-led interactive one. METHODS: Data from 16 health educators were collected after 504 classroom sessions, 63 of which were observed by 24 monitors. RESULTS: In the interactive program, health educators (HEs) followed the curriculum less closely, reported less favorable classroom processes and less off-task talking than in the standard one. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that an interactive substance-abuse prevention program does not necessarily entail more off-task discussion but also does not necessarily guarantee more favorable program implementation. (+info)
The effects of teamwork and system support on colorectal cancer screening in primary care practices.
BACKGROUND: While cancer screening is generally increasing in the U.S., colorectal cancer (CRC) screening remains low. Most CRC screening interventions focus either on patients or individual clinicians without examining the office context in which CRC screening is implemented. This study examines whether primary care practices that involve staff in general forms of health education have higher CRC screening rates than practices that do not. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 22 New Jersey and Pennsylvania family medicine practices were analyzed. Data include chart audits for 795 men and women eligible for CRC screening (age 50-70) and practice information surveys for each practice. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine CRC screening correlates. RESULTS: Overall, 31.3% (n=249) of patients received CRC screening. Practices that reported using nursing or health educator staff to provide behavioral counseling to patients on topics such as diet, exercise or tobacco use were significantly more likely to also have higher CRC screening rates (z=7.30, p<0.0001). Their patients had 2.96 times increased odds of CRC screening than those in other practices (95% C.I., 2.21-3.96). Reminder system use was also associated with higher CRC screening (z=4.96, p<0.0001). In practices that used reminder systems, patients had 2.57 times increased odds of CRC screening than others (95% C.I., 1.77-3.74). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that interventions to achieve better CRC screening rates do not need to focus solely on CRC. Higher CRC rates may be achieved by capitalizing on the enhancing contributions of non-physician practice members providing more general health behavior change patient education. (+info)
US health educators' likelihood of adopting genomic competencies into health promotion.
Assessing the professional development needs of public health educators in light of changing competencies.
INTRODUCTION: Because of the need for a well-trained public health workforce, professional competencies have been recently revised by the Institute of Medicine and the National Health Educator Competencies Update Project. This study compared the self-identified training needs of public health educators with the updated competencies and assessed employer support for continuing education. METHODS: A convenience sample of public health educators was recruited from an e-mail list of San Jose State University master of public health alumni. Respondents completed a Web-based survey that elicited information on emerging trends in public health education, training needs, and employer support for continuing education. RESULTS: Concerns about funding cuts and privatization of resources emerged as a theme. Key trends reported were an increase in information technology, the need for policy advocacy skills, and the importance of a lifespan approach to health issues. Primary areas for training were organization development, evaluation, and management. Although most employers were reported to support continuing education, less than two-thirds of respondents were reimbursed for expenses. CONCLUSION: These findings have implications for both research and practice. Innovative technologies should be developed to address health education professionals' training needs, and emerging themes should be incorporated into curricula for students. (+info)
Effectiveness of a capacity-building program for community leaders in a healthy living environment: a randomized community-based intervention in rural Vietnam.