Chewing gum--facts and fiction: a review of gum-chewing and oral health.
The world market for chewing gum is estimated to be 560,000 tons per year, representing approximately US $5 billion. Some 374 billion pieces of chewing gum are sold worldwide every year, representing 187 billion hours of gum-chewing if each piece of gum is chewed for 30 minutes. Chewing gum can thus be expected to have an influence on oral health. The labeling of sugar-substituted chewing gum as "safe for teeth" or "tooth-friendly" has been proven beneficial to the informed consumer. Such claims are allowed for products having been shown in vivo not to depress plaque pH below 5.7, neither during nor for 30 minutes after the consumption. However, various chewing gum manufacturers have recently begun to make distinct health promotion claims, suggesting, e.g., reparative action or substitution for mechanical hygiene. The aim of this critical review--covering the effects of the physical properties of chewing gum and those of different ingredients both of conventional and of functional chewing gum--is to provide a set of guidelines for the interpretation of such claims and to assist oral health care professionals in counseling patients. (+info)
A comparison between written, verbal, and videotape oral hygiene instruction for patients with fixed appliances.
The objective of the study was to compare the effectiveness of written, videotape, and one-to-one instruction upon the knowledge, oral hygiene standard, and gingival health of subjects undergoing orthodontic treatment with a lower fixed appliance. Subjects for whom fixed appliances had been fitted recently were divided randomly into three groups of 21, 22, and 22, respectively. Group 1 received written oral hygiene instruction, group 2 a specially made videotape, and group 3 saw a hygienist for one-to-one instruction. Results were assessed in terms of improvement in knowledge concerning oral hygiene procedures, and of plaque and gingival index scores. Analysis of variance revealed no significant main effects or interactions at P = 0.05, although the difference in the plaque index scores before and after instruction was close to significance. (+info)
Peer-led and adult-led school health education: a critical review of available comparative research.
Peer-led health education in school is widely used. Advocates suggest it is an effective method based on the belief that information, particularly sensitive information, is more easily shared between people of a similar age. Critics suggest that this is a method not based on sound theory or evidence of effectiveness. This review evaluates school-based health education programmes which have set out to compare the effects of peers or adults delivering the same material. The identified studies indicated that peer leaders were at least as, or more, effective than adults. Although this suggests that peer-led programmes can be effective, methodological difficulties and analytical problems indicate that this is not an easy area to investigate, and research so far has not provided a definitive answer. (+info)
Effectiveness of methods used by dental professionals for the primary prevention of dental caries.
This paper summarizes and rates the evidence for the effectiveness of methods available to dental professionals for their use in the primary prevention of dental caries. It reviews operator-applied therapeutic agents or materials and patient counseling. Evidence of effectiveness is extracted from published systematic reviews. A search for articles since publication of these reviews was done to provide updates, and a systematic review of the caries-inhibiting effects of fluoride varnish in primary teeth is provided. Good evidence is available for the effectiveness of fluoride gel and varnish, chlorhexidine gel, and sealant when used to prevent caries in permanent teeth of children and adolescents. The evidence for effectiveness of fluoride varnish use in primary teeth, chlorhexidine varnish, and patient counseling is judged to be insufficient. Use of fluoride, chlorhexidine and sealant according to tested protocols and for the populations in which evidence of effect is available can be recommended. However, they may need to be used selectively. Estimates for the number of patients or tooth surfaces needed to treat to prevent a carious event suggest that the effects of these professional treatments are low in patients who are at reduced risk for dental caries. The literature on use of these preventive methods in individuals other than school-aged children needs expansion. (+info)
Impact of targeted, school-based dental sealant programs in reducing racial and economic disparities in sealant prevalence among schoolchildren--Ohio, 1998-1999.
Despite the availability of highly effective measures for primary prevention, dental caries (tooth decay) remains one of the most common childhood chronic diseases. When properly placed, dental sealants are almost 100% effective in preventing caries on the chewing surfaces of first and second permanent molarteeth. However, sealants remain underused, particularly among children from low-income families and from racial/ethnic minority groups. Schools traditionally have been a setting for both dental disease prevention programs and for oral health status assessment. To determine the prevalence of dental sealant use among third grade students from schools with and without sealant programs, during the 1998-99 school year, the Ohio Department of Health conducted an oral health survey among schoolchildren. This report summarizes the results of this survey, which indicate that targeted, school-based dental sealant programs can substantially increase prevalence of dental sealants. Providing sealant programs in all eligible, high-risk schools could reduce or eliminate racial and economic disparities in the prevalence of dental sealants. (+info)
Professional and community efforts to prevent morbidity and mortality from oral cancer.
BACKGROUND: Oral and pharyngeal cancers cause significant morbidity and mortality, yet there has been little improvement in survival rates in the past 30 years. Because early diagnoses significantly increase survival rates, the authors summarize several approaches to educating and mobilizing the dental profession and the public about this problem. Clinicians are invited to initiate similar programs to catalyze change in their own communities. METHODS: The authors found that many approaches have been used to define the problem and initiate change. These include surveys, focus groups, development of consortia, media programs, flyers, leaflets, prescription pads, legislation and professional endorsements. RESULTS: In Maryland in 1996, only 20 percent of adults reported receiving an oral cancer examination, and most oral cancers were diagnosed at late stages by physicians, not dentists. Results of the public educational campaigns in the regions of New York/New Jersey and Maryland have not been formally evaluated, but there is a developing consensus that oral cancer diagnostic practices in the regions with active educational programs are increasing. CONCLUSIONS: Coalitions or partnerships among individuals and organizations from government, academia, private practice, industry, the general community and the media can affect awareness about oral cancer prevention and early detection on a regional basis. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: By increasing awareness of oral cancer among the dental profession and the public, earlier diagnosis of these cancers with consequent improved cure rates is likely. Providing oral cancer diagnostic services as a routine part of an oral examination also may motivate patients to visit the dentist at least once a year. (+info)
Child oral health promotion experiences in Northern Ireland.
It is a curious state of affairs that the children in Northern Ireland (NI) compared with their counterparts in the Republic of Ireland and Great Britain have some of the worst dental health. (+info)
Impact of a dental/dental hygiene tobacco-use cessation curriculum on practice.
Tobacco use is the chief avoidable cause of morbidity and mortality in North America and is associated with increased risk for oral cancer and increased prevalence and severity of periodontitis and other oral conditions. By delivering two- to three-minute tobacco-use cessation counseling (TUCC), oral health professionals can achieve quit rates substantially higher than the spontaneous quit rate. However, many clinicians report lack of training and knowledge in TUCC as barriers to providing cessation counseling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether implementation of a comprehensive, dental school-based, tobacco-use cessation program would increase the extent to which tobacco-using patients received TUCC. The school's program was based on the critical administrative, cultural, structural, and policy components of effective TUCC interventions outlined by Fiore et al. A pre- and post-program telephone interview of tobacco-using patients assessed TUCC intervention by students. A significantly greater proportion of patients received TUCC post-program compared to pre-program in terms of consequences associated with tobacco use as well as advice to quit. A comprehensive TUCC program resulted in an improvement of 11.7 percent for consequences and 23 percent for advice to quit. (+info)