(1/120) High frequency of codon 61 K-ras A-->T transversions in lung and Harderian gland neoplasms of B6C3F1 mice exposed to chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene) for 2 years, and comparisons with the structurally related chemicals isoprene and 1,3-butadiene.
Chloroprene is the 2-chloro analog of 1,3-butadiene, a potent carcinogen in laboratory animals. Following 2 years of inhalation exposure to 12.8, 32 or 80 p.p.m. chloroprene, increased incidences of lung and Harderian gland (HG) neoplasms were observed in B6C3F1 mice at all exposure concentrations. The present study was designed to characterize genetic alterations in the K- and H-ras proto-oncogenes in chloroprene-induced lung and HG neoplasms. K-ras mutations were detected in 80% of chloroprene-induced lung neoplasms (37/46) compared with only 30% in spontaneous lung neoplasms (25/82). Both K- and H-ras codon 61 A-->T transversions were identified in 100% of HG neoplasms (27/27) compared with a frequency of 56% (15/27) in spontaneous HG neoplasms. The predominant mutation in chloroprene-induced lung and HG neoplasms was an A-->T transversion at K-ras codon 61. This mutation has not been detected in spontaneous lung tumors of B6C3F1 mice and was identified in only 7% of spontaneous HG neoplasms. In lung neoplasms, greater percentages (80 and 71%) of A-->T transversions were observed at the lower exposures (12.8 and 32 p.p.m.), respectively, compared with 18% at the high exposure. In HG neoplasms, the percentage of A-->T transversions was the same at all exposure concentrations. The chloroprene-induced ras mutation spectra was similar to that seen with isoprene, where the predominant base change was an A-->T transversion at K-ras codon 61. This differed from 1,3-butadiene, where K-ras codon 13 G-->C transitions and H-ras codon 61 A-->G transitions were the predominant mutations. The major finding of K-ras A-->T transversions in lung and Harderian gland neoplasms suggests that this mutation may be important for tumor induction by this class of carcinogens. (+info)
(2/120) Bacterial conjunctivitis in Muc1 null mice.
PURPOSE: In contrast to wild-type mice, genetically engineered Mucin1 (Muc1) null animals display a marked propensity for development of blepharitis and conjunctivitis. Molecular approaches confirmed the presence of Muc1 mRNA and protein in the conjunctival tissue of wild-type mice and identified the bacterial species in Muc1 null symptomatic mice. METHODS: Muc1 null animals housed in a conventional facility were examined for visually apparent inflammation of the eye and surrounding tissue. Blood taken from overtly affected animals was assayed for antibodies to common murine viral agents. Swabs of infected eyes and whole eye preparations were used to detect and speciate bacterial pathogens. Frozen sections of whole eye, lid margin, and Harderian gland were immunostained with antibodies to Muc1 and cytokeratin 14, both epithelial cell markers. Northern blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed on RNA isolated from conjunctiva and Harderian gland of wild-type mice to compare relative levels of transcript. RESULTS: Student's unpaired t-test performed on the eye inflammation frequency of Muc1 null mice confirmed a statistical significance (P < 0.01) when compared to wild-type background animals housed in the same room. Analysis of blood samples from affected Muc1 null animals detected no common murine viral pathogens. Bacterial analysis of conjunctival swabs and whole eye preparations demonstrated the presence of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Streptococcus type alpha, and Corynebacterium group G2. Muc1 antibody staining of wild-type sections revealed the presence of Muc1 on conjunctival goblet and non-goblet cells and on the epithelium of the Harderian gland. Serial sections stained with cytokeratin 14 antibody confirmed the epithelial nature of cells expressing the Muc1 protein. RNA from conjunctiva and Harderian gland subjected to RT-PCR and northern blot analysis showed an abundance of Muc1 transcript in these tissues. CONCLUSIONS: Muc1 mRNA and protein are present in murine conjunctival and Harderian gland epithelia. Animals lacking Muc1 mRNA and protein are predisposed to developing eye inflammation when compared to wild-type animals with an intact Muc1 gene. Muc1 appears to play a critical protective role at the ocular surface, presumably by acting as a barrier to infection by certain bacterial strains. (+info)
(3/120) A parasympathetic ganglion innervating the harderian gland and lacrimal gland of the musk shrew (Suncus murinus): fluorescent tracing and immunohistochemical studies.
A small ganglion, named the peri-trigeminal ganglion (PTG), was found in the ventromedial border of the rostral half of the trigeminal ganglion (TG) in the musk shrew (Suncus murinus). In frontal sections, the PTG was semicircular or elliptical in shape. Most of the neurons constituting this ganglion were round in shape and much smaller than those of the TG. The retrograde fluorescent tracer fluoro-gold was injected into various regions of the face in order to investigate innervation by the PTG neurons. When the tracer was injected subcutaneously around the external acoustic meatus and around the circumference of the orbit, a number of labeled neurons were seen not only in the TG but also in the PTG. After applying the tracer to the lacrimal gland (LG) and the harderian gland (HG), numerous labeled neurons were detected only in the PTG. A few labeled neurons were found in the PTG after injection into the palatoglossal arch. Immunohistochemically, most of the neurons constituting the PTG were positive for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) antiserum. And a moderate number of somatostatin (SOM)-immunoreactive neurons and a small number of leucine-enkephalin (L-ENK)-immunoreactive neurons were detected. Numerous substance P-immunoreactive nerve fibers and varicosities were found in the PTG, and fewer L-ENK-, SOM- and VIP-immunoreactive fibers were observed. The present results suggest that the PTG is an autonomic ganglion that resembles in part the pterygopalatine ganglion in other species, and mainly innervates the HG and LG. (+info)
(4/120) Immunohistochemical characterisation of epithelial cells of rodent harderian glands in primary culture.
The aims of the current investigation were (1) to establish an efficient procedure for the isolation of rodent harderian gland cells and to define conditions for maintenance of viable differentiated cells; (2) to compare the in vitro growth pattern of cultured epithelial cells; and (3) to characterise the cultured epithelial cells from 3 rodent species: Wistar rats, Syrian hamsters and Djungarian hamsters. We have established primary culture conditions that permit the maintenance of viable and differentiated secretory cells from adult rodent harderian gland. This study demonstrates that the cell growth pattern is faster in hamsters than in rats and despite morphological changes, epithelial cells reestablish their distinctive (biochemical/metabolic) phenotype as indicated by lipid-containing vacuoles, porphyrin pigment and serotonin and tryptophan hydroxylase labelling. (+info)
(5/120) Isolation and characterization of protoporphyrin glycoconjugates from rat harderian gland by HPLC, capillary electrophoresis and HPLC/electrospray ionization MS.
It has been widely reported that the Harderian gland, present in most vertebrates, accumulates high levels of porphyrins, particularly protoporphyrin. The present study describes the extraction, identification and characterization of a group of hitherto unreported protoporphyrin glycoconjugates in the rat Harderian gland using HPLC, capillary electrophoresis, on-line HPLC/electrospray ionization MS and tandem MS. The major glycoconjugate was identified as protoporphyrin-1-O-acyl beta-xyloside with a smaller amount of protoporphyrin-1-O-acyl beta-glucoside also detected. In the Harderian glands studied, 50-70% of the porphyrins present were in the form of protoporphyrin glycoconjugates. This is the first reported occurrence of glycoconjugates of porphyrins in Nature and suggests that previous studies have wrongly identified the major porphyrin in the Harderian gland as the unconjugated protoporphyrin. (+info)
(6/120) Chronic inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of 3-chloro-2-methylpropene in BDF1 mice.
Chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of 3-chloro-2-methylpropene (CMP), which has been widely used as an insecticide and chemical intermediate, were carried out in BDF1 mice. CMP was administered to mice in groups of 50 male and 50 female mice by the inhalation route 5 days per week for 104 weeks at doses of 0, 50, 100 or 200 ppm. Male and female mice in the CMP-exposed groups had decreased body weight but no noticeable clinical signs when compared with the control group. Dose-related increases in the incidences of gastric mucosal hyperplasia and squamous cell papilloma were observed in both sexes, and squamous cell carcinoma was observed in only one male mouse in the 100 ppm group. An increased incidence of Harderian gland adenoma in female mice was also recognized. In the nasal cavity, eosinophilic exudate associated with atrophy of olfactory epithelia, respiratory metaplasia of olfactory epithelia and olfactory gland, and eosinophilic changes in respiratory and olfactory epithelia were increased in both sexes. (+info)
(7/120) Endogenous and ectopic gland induction by FGF-10.
FGF-10, a member of the fibroblast growth factor family, is expressed in mesodermally derived cell populations during embryogenesis. During normal ocular development, FGF-10 is expressed in the perioptic mesenchyme adjacent to the Harderian and lacrimal gland primordia. In this report, we provide evidence that FGF-10 is both necessary and sufficient to initiate glandular morphogenesis. Lens-specific expression of FGF-10 was sufficient to induce ectopic ocular glands within the cornea. In addition, lacrimal and Harderian glands were not seen in FGF-10 null fetuses. Based on these results we propose that FGF-10 is an inductive signal that initiates ocular gland morphogenesis. (+info)
(8/120) Investigation of the role of prolactin in the development and function of the lacrimal and harderian glands using genetically modified mice.
PURPOSE: To determine whether prolactin receptor is essential for normal development and function of the lacrimal gland and whether hyperprolactinemia can alter lacrimal development. METHODS: Lacrimal gland morphology and function were examined in two genetic mouse models of prolactin action: a prolactin receptor knockout model that is devoid of prolactin action and a transgenic model of hyperprolactinemia. RESULTS: Image analysis of lacrimal and Harderian gland sections was used to quantify glandular morphology. In females, lacrimal acinar area decreased by 30% and acinar cell density increased by 25% over control subjects in prolactin transgenic animals, but prolactin receptor knockout mice showed no changes. In males, transgenic animals showed no changes, but prolactin receptor knockout mice showed a 5% reduction in acinar area and an 11% increase in acinar cell density, which was lost after castration. The morphology of the Harderian glands underwent parallel changes but to a lesser degree. A complete loss of porphyrin accretions was seen in the Harderian glands of male and female knockout animals. No differences in tear protein levels were seen in knockout animals by two-dimensional gels. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis showed that the level of secretory component and IgA in knockout mouse tears remained unchanged. There was no change in the predisposition of the 129 mouse strain to conjunctivitis in the knockout animals. CONCLUSIONS: Prolactin plays a small role in establishing the sexual dimorphism of male lacrimal glands. In females, hyperprolactinemia causes a hyperfemale morphology, suggesting a role in dry eye syndromes. Prolactin is required for porphyrin secretion by the Harderian gland but plays no essential role in the secretory immune function of the lacrimal gland. (+info)