(1/312) Emotional status after right vs. left temporal lobectomy.
Nineteen temporal lobectomy patients with epilepsy were evaluated (11 right and 8 left) with a brief questionnaire that addressed: (1) General Happiness; (2) Depression; (3) Anxiety; (4) Impulse Control; and (5) Socialization. The patients with left temporal lobectomy reported increases in depression and decreases in socialization compared with the right temporal lobectomy patients after surgery. Furthermore although the right temporal lobectomy patients reported increases in general happiness, no changes in general happiness were reported by the left temporal lobectomy patients. The present study supported the idea that an increased negative affect is associated with left rather than right temporal lobectomy. This is consistent with a model of negative emotional valence when the right hemisphere dominates awareness. (+info)
(2/312) Reducing indices of unhappiness among individuals with profound multiple disabilities during therapeutic exercise routines.
A program was developed to reduce indices of unhappiness that accompanied therapeutic exercise routines among people with profound multiple disabilities. Indices of unhappiness were recorded, using an observation system that had been validated through previous research involving happiness-related variables, while support personnel conducted exercises with 3 participants. A multicomponent program was then implemented that involved presenting highly preferred stimuli before, during, and after each exercise session. Results indicated that the program was accompanied by reduced indices of unhappiness for each participant relative to the traditional method of conducting the exercises, although changes in the preferred stimuli used with 1 participant were required before consistent reductions occurred. Results are discussed regarding the importance of reducing unhappiness indices as a means of enhancing aspects of the daily quality of life for people with profound multiple disabilities. Areas for future research are also discussed, focusing on expanding the unhappiness-reduction procedures to other routine events that may occasion indices of unhappiness. (+info)
(3/312) Photographic memory, money, and liposuction: survey of medical students' wish lists.
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether medical students made fewer altruistic wishes and more money oriented wishes in later years of the medical course than students in earlier years. DESIGN: Anonymous questionnaire survey. SETTING: Auckland University School of Medicine. PARTICIPANTS: 520 medical students from 6 years of the course responded to the questionnaire item "If you had three wishes what would you wish for?" MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of wishes in various categories. RESULTS: The three most popular categories of wishes were happiness (34% of students), money (32%), and altruistic wishes (31%). Rates of altruistic wishes (odds ratio=1.05, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 1.18; P=0.36) and wishes for money (odds ratio=0.96, 0.86 to 1.08; P=0.52) did not vary over the years of the course. Female medical students were more likely than males to make altruistic wishes (36% v 26%; chi(2)=5.68, P=0. 02), intimacy wishes (25% v 18%; chi(2)=3.74, P=0.05), and happiness wishes (42% v 26%; chi(2)=18.82, P=0.0001). Men were more likely than women to make sexual wishes (5% v 0.8%; chi(2)=7.34, P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that students were less altruistic and more money oriented in the later years of the medical course. (+info)
(4/312) Is anhedonia a specific dimension in chronic schizophrenia?
This article explores the relationships among anhedonia, depression, and schizophrenic symptomatology in chronic schizophrenia. To explore these relationships, factor analysis methods were used to analyze the latent organization of the variables. The Fawcett Clark Pleasure Capacity Scale-Physical Pleasure (FCPCS-PP) and the abridged version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were completed by 150 subjects who met research diagnostic criteria for definite chronic schizophrenia. The schizophrenic symptomatology was rated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Two separate exploratory principal components analyses were completed, followed by varimax rotation. The first was made on the correlation matrix comprising items from both the FCPCS-PP and PANSS and yielded a five-factor solution with virtually no overlap of the significant factor loadings for the items from each scale. The second was made on the correlation matrix comprising items from both the FCPCS-PP and BDI and yielded a two-factor solution with virtually no overlap of the significant factor loadings for the items from each scale. Confirmatory factor analyses corresponding to the two exploratory factor analyses were done to examine the goodness of fit of the five-factor solution versus a four-factor solution and the two-factor solution versus a one-factor solution. The five-factor and the two-factor solutions yielded the best fit to the data relative to the other models tested. The findings support the view that part of anhedonia is a construct that is distinct and separate from depression and schizophrenic symptomatology in chronic schizophrenia. (+info)
(5/312) Crossmodal binding of fear in voice and face.
In social environments, multiple sensory channels are simultaneously engaged in the service of communication. In this experiment, we were concerned with defining the neuronal mechanisms for a perceptual bias in processing simultaneously presented emotional voices and faces. Specifically, we were interested in how bimodal presentation of a fearful voice facilitates recognition of fearful facial expression. By using event-related functional MRI, that crossed sensory modality (visual or auditory) with emotional expression (fearful or happy), we show that perceptual facilitation during face fear processing is expressed through modulation of neuronal responses in the amygdala and the fusiform cortex. These data suggest that the amygdala is important for emotional crossmodal sensory convergence with the associated perceptual bias during fear processing, being mediated by task-related modulation of face-processing regions of fusiform cortex. (+info)
(6/312) Interpersonal predictors of dieting practices among married couples.
The relations between couples' marital quality and dieting behavior were examined. One-hundred eighty-seven married couples' dieting behaviors, marital quality, body mass index, weight concerns, depression, and self-esteem were assessed. Results indicate that the relation between healthy dieting behaviors and marital quality is similar for both husbands and wives. However, among wives, marital discord predicted unhealthy dieting behaviors, even after wives' body mass index, weight concerns, self-esteem, and depression were controlled for. Furthermore, wives' self-esteem interacted with marital quality when predicting unhealthy dieting. These findings suggest gender differences in the relations between marital quality and dieting behaviors and are consistent with previous research suggesting that men and women have differential response patterns to marital disharmony, with women tending to internalize negative affect experienced in their marriage. (+info)
(7/312) Pleasure in decision-making situations.
BACKGROUND: This study explores the role of pleasure in decision making. RESULTS: In Experiment 1, 12 subjects were presented with a questionnaire containing 46 items taken from the literature. Twenty-three items described a situation where a decision should be made and ended with a suggested solution. The other items served as filler items. The subjects were requested not to make a decision but to rate the pleasure or displeasure they experienced when reading the situation described in the item. The subjects' ratings were then compared to the decisions on the same situations made by the other subjects of the studies published by other workers. The ratings of pleasure/displeasure given by our subjects correlated significantly with the choices published by other authors. This result satisfies a necessary condition for pleasure to be the key of the decision making process in theoretical situations. In Experiment 2, a new group of 12 subjects rated their experience of pleasure/displeasure when reading various versions of 50 situations taken from daily life where an ethical decision had to be made (Questionnaire I) including 200 items. This was followed by a multiple-choice test with the 50 situations (Questionnaire II) using the same 200 items and offering the various behaviors. Subjects tended to choose ethical and unethical responses corresponding to their highest pleasure rating within each problem. In all cases the subjects' behavior was higher than chance level, and thus, followed the trend to maximize pleasure. In Experiment 3, 12 subjects reading 50 mathematical short problems followed by correct and incorrect versions of the answer to the problem (Questionnaire III), including 200 items. This was followed by a multiple-choice mathematical test with the 50 problems (Questionnaire IV) using the same 200 items and offering the correct and incorrect answers. In questionnaire IV, subjects tended to choose correct as well as incorrect responses corresponding to their highest hedonic rating within each problem. In all cases the subjects' behavior was higher than chance level, and thus, followed the trend to maximize pleasure. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the three experiments support the hypothesis according to which decisions are made in the hedonic dimension of conscious experience. (+info)
(8/312) Visceral sensation and emotion: a study using hypnosis.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We have previously shown that hypnosis can be used to study the effect of different emotions on the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. These studies demonstrated that both anger and excitement increased colonic motility while happiness led to a reduction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hypnotically induced emotion on the visceral sensitivity of the gut. METHODS: Sensory responses to balloon distension of the rectum and compliance were assessed in 20 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) (aged 17-64 years; 17 female) diagnosed by the Rome I criteria. Patients were studied on four separate occasions in random order either awake (control) or in hypnosis, during which anger, happiness, or relaxation (neutral emotion) were induced. RESULTS: Hypnotic relaxation increased the distension volume required to induce discomfort (p=0.05) while anger reduced this threshold compared with relaxation (p<0.05), happiness (p<0.01), and awake conditions (p<0.001). Happiness did not further alter sensitivity from that observed during relaxation. There were no associated changes in rectal compliance or wall tension. CONCLUSIONS: Further to our previous observations on motility, this study shows that emotion can also affect an IBS patient's perception of rectal distension and demonstrates the critical role of the mind in modulating gastrointestinal physiology. These results emphasise how awareness of the emotional state of the patient is important when either measuring visceral sensitivity or treating IBS. (+info)