Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is localized to Muller cells in all vertebrate retinas. (65/4345)

The distribution of endothelial nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity (eNOS-IR) was investigated in the retinas of all phylogenetic vertebrate classes by using a monoclonal eNOS antibody. Confocal light microscopy showed immunoreactive labeling in Muller cells of fish, frog, salamander, turtle, chicken, rat, ground squirrel, and monkey retina. In vascularized retinas (rat, monkey), astrocytes and some blood vessels were also stained. Furthermore, eNOS-IR was localized to axon terminals of turtle and fish horizontal cells. These observations are the first to show the presence of eNOS-IR in Muller glia and horizontal cell structures of the vertebrate retina.  (+info)

Leukocyte differential analysis in multiple laboratory species by a laser multi-angle polarized light scattering separation method. (66/4345)

Leukocyte differential analysis was performed in various species, particularly laboratory animals, by the laser multi-angle polarized light scattering separation method. Venous blood specimens were drawn from the following subjects: healthy adult men and women ("humans"); cynomolgus monkeys ("monkeys"); common marmosets ("marmosets"); beagle dogs ("dogs"); miniature potbelly pigs ("swine"); Japanese white rabbits ("rabbits"); Hartley guinea pigs ("guinea pigs"); and Sprague-Dawley rats ("rats"). 90 degrees/10 degrees scatter plot: Basophils and mononuclear-polymorphonuclear cells were separated in all subjects, but individual 10 degrees and 90 degrees scatter plots overlapped in dogs and guinea pigs, respectively. 90 degrees depolarized /90 degrees scatter plot: Neutrophils and eosinophils were clearly separated in human, monkey, guinea pig, swine and rat subjects. The eosinophil cluster was not clearly plotted in marmoset, dog, or rabbit. 0 degree/10 degrees scatter plot: Regarding this plot for monocytes and lymphocytes, cells were plotted in the following order in all subjects: lymphocytes < basophils < or = monocytes in the 0 degree (size) scatter; and lymphocytes [symbol: see text] monocytes < or = basophils in the 10 degrees (complexity) scatter. Compared to other species, the rat scatter showed a tendency to overlapping plots in both the 0 degree and 10 degrees scatters in the monocyte and lymphocyte clusters. In both dog and guinea pig, the monocyte and neutrophil plots overlapped in the 0 degree and 10 degrees scatters. Basobox: In the human and rabbit subjects, the basophil cluster was plotted within the established basobox, but no clear cell cluster was plotted in the other subjects. As a result of comparing the percentage values for leukocytes in various species obtained by using the CD3500 apparatus versus the corresponding values obtained manually, good correspondence was found in the monkey, and eosinophils in the marmoset were lower with CD3500 than manually. In the rabbit, the mean measured value for basophils matched in the manual and CD3500 findings. In the guinea pig, the CD3500 values were lower than the manual values for lymphocytes, but higher for monocytes and neutrophils. The above findings suggest that the laser multi-angle polarized light scattering separation method is indeed capable of analyzing leukocytes from various species based on cell size and cell complexity, i.e., the presence or absence of nuclei, granules and cell enclosures.  (+info)

Evaluation of ready-to-use liquid reagents for clinical chemistry in laboratory animals. (67/4345)

We evaluated the ready-to-use liquid reagents for clinical chemistry (6 tests), to assess their suitability for use in the toxicology laboratory setting. Hitachi 736 automated analyzer was used for the analyses. The evaluation included the following studies: Precision, Linearity, Effects of interference substances such as hemolytic hemoglobin, bilirubin, turbidity to the analytical values and correlation to the solid reagents, which are prepared each time they are needed. The precision and linearity data were within the reagents' specifications. Results of comparison of the liquid reagents and the solid reagents in analyzing plasma samples of rats, dogs and monkeys were generally good except for a bias in results for GOT and GPT, regardless of the animal species tested. It is concluded that these types of liquid reagents can be used in clinical pathology examinations in animal studies.  (+info)

Nonhuman primate model for the study of respiratory Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. (68/4345)

Squirrel monkeys were inoculated by the intratracheal inoculation of 700 Klebsiella pneumoniae organisms and developed lobar pneumonia in about 24 h. Characteristic clinical findings were fever, anorexia, and coughing. Laboratory findings included leukocytosis or leukopenia (with the latter more prominent in ultimately fatal infections), bacteremia, and shedding of bacteria into the pharynx. Infected monkeys showed increased plasma lysozyme activity as well as increased plasma ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin and alpha1-antitrypsin. The mortality rate was 60%, and the mean time of death was 50.5 h. Pathologically, the disease spread by means of Kohn's pores and other pathways that generally did not involve airways as a means of dissemination until about 30 h. Squirrel monkeys seem to be better models for human respiratory K. pneumoniae infection than rats or mice.  (+info)

Pressure-dependent changes in nuclei and the process origins of the endothelial cells lining Schlemm's canal. (69/4345)

Monkeys eyes were fixed with glutaraldehyde in vivo at positive intraocular pressure of 35 or 25 mm Hg and compared with eyes fixed without a positive pressure gradient, with the use of light microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The entire endothelial lining of the inner wall of Schlemm's canal ballooned or distended toward the external wall of the canal at positive intraocular pressure. Characteristic nuclear shapes were identified and appeared to result from the increased pressure forcing the lining away from the meshwork opposed by a restraining or anchoring effect of cytoplasmic processes attached to the subendothelial cells and trabecular meshwork. Without positive intraocular pressure endothelial cell nuclei were rounded, with many folds and notches in the nuclear membrane and were not deformed by their cytoplasmic processes. These findings suggest that the cells may be capable of elastic recoil or contraction.  (+info)

Mediation of pinocytosis in cultured arterial smooth muscle and endothelial cells by platelet-derived growth factor. (70/4345)

Pinocytosis was measured in monkey aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC), bovine aortic endothelial cells, and Swiss 3T3 cells in culture as cellular uptake of [U-(14)C]sucrose and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) from the tissue culture medium. Monkey arterial SMC and Swiss 3T3 cells were maintained in a quiescent state of growth at low cells density in medium containing 5 percent monkey plasma-derived serum (PDS). Replacement of PDS with 5 percent monkey whole blood serum (WBS) from the same donor, or addition to PDS of partially purified platelet-derived growth factor(s) (PF), resulted in a marked stimulation of pinocytosis as well as of cellular proliferation. In SMC, enhancement of the rate of pinocytosis occurred 4-6 h after exposure to WBS or PF, and the rate was up to twofold higher than the rate in medium containing PDS. In contrast, [(3)H]thymidine uptake by SMC did not increase until 12-16 h after exposure to PF. In endothelial cells the presence of PF or WBS did not enhance either the rate of pinocytosis or the rate of proliferation over that in PDS. Thus, endothelial cells did not become quiescent at subconfluent densities in PDS but maintained rates of proliferation and pinocytosis that were equivalent to those in WBS. By autoradiography, the fraction of labeled nuclei in SMC cultures 24 h after change of medium increased from 0.061 +/- 0.004 in quiescent cultures to 0.313 +/- 0.028 after exposure to WBS or PF. In contrast, labeling indices of endothelial cells were similar for cultures grown in PDS, WBS, or PF at any single time point after change of medium. These findings suggest that the rate of pinocytosis maybe be coupled in some fashion to growth regulation, which may be mediated in part by specific growth factors, such as that derived from the thrombocyte.  (+info)

The AMY antigen co-occurs with abeta and follows its deposition in the amyloid plaques of Alzheimer's disease and down syndrome. (71/4345)

Novel plaque-like "AMY" lesions were recently described in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using three Abeta antibodies, we now document the co-occurrence of AMY immunoreactivity (IR) with amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) in the large majority of plaques in AD brain. AMY IR was detected in many compacted plaques, whereas its co-localization with early, diffuse Abeta deposits was rare. AMY IR overlapped considerably or fully with Abeta and, in more severely affected AD brains, decorated the periphery of some plaques. In a temporal series of 29 Down syndrome (DS) brains from patients aged 12 to 73 years, the earliest AMY IR was detected in some plaques at age 15, following the earliest appearance of Abeta plaques (age 12 years), and then accrued within a subset of Abeta deposits, namely, the more spherical, compacted plaques. Brains from DS patients 29 years and older showed AMY staining in many Abeta plaques, as seen in AD. Brains from eight monkeys aged 17 to 34 years and thirty APP transgenic mice aged 8 to 20 months showed Abeta IR but no AMY IR. We conclude that AMY IR represents an amyloid-associated antigen that co-deposits in most but not all Abeta plaques in AD and DS and that accumulation of the AMY antigen follows Abeta deposition in plaques.  (+info)

A visceral pain pathway in the dorsal column of the spinal cord. (72/4345)

A limited midline myelotomy at T10 can relieve pelvic cancer pain in patients. This observation is explainable in light of strong evidence in support of the existence of a visceral pain pathway that ascends in the dorsal column (DC) of the spinal cord. In rats and monkeys, responses of neurons in the ventral posterolateral thalamic nucleus to noxious colorectal distention are dramatically reduced after a lesion of the DC at T10, but not by interruption of the spinothalamic tract. Blockade of transmission of visceral nociceptive signals through the rat sacral cord by microdialysis administration of morphine or 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione shows that postsynaptic DC neurons in the sacral cord transmit visceral nociceptive signals to the gracile nucleus. Retrograde tracing studies in rats demonstrate a concentration of postsynaptic DC neurons in the central gray matter of the L6-S1 spinal segments, and anterograde tracing studies show that labeled axons ascend from this region to the gracile nucleus. A similar projection from the midthoracic spinal cord ends in the gracile and cuneate nuclei. Behavioral experiments demonstrate that DC lesions reduce the nocifensive responses produced by noxious stimulation of the pancreas and duodenum, as well as the electrophysiological responses of ventral posterolateral neurons to these stimuli. Repeated regional blood volume measurements were made in the thalamus and other brain structures in anesthetized monkeys in response to colorectal distention by functional MRI. Sham surgery did not reduce the regional blood volume changes, whereas the changes were eliminated by a DC lesion at T10.  (+info)