Bovine oocyte cytoplasm supports development of embryos produced by nuclear transfer of somatic cell nuclei from various mammalian species. (57/4345)

The transfer of nuclei from one cell to another provides a powerful tool for studying the interactions between the cytoplasm of one cell and the nucleus of another. This study was designed to examine the ability of the bovine metaphase oocyte cytoplasm to support mitotic cell cycles under the direction of differentiated somatic cell nuclei of various mammalian species. Skin fibroblast cells from cows, sheep, pigs, monkeys, and rats were used as sources of donor nuclei. Nuclear transfer units produced by fusion of enucleated bovine oocytes and individual fibroblasts from all species examined underwent transition to interphase accompanied by nuclear swelling, further progression through the cell cycle, and completion of the first mitosis. Regardless of the species of donor fibroblasts used, some cleaving units progressed further and developed to advanced stages, as evidenced by continuation of cell proliferation and formation of a blastocoele cavity at the time appropriate for the donor fibroblast species. Although no pregnancies have been carried to term after transfer of embryos into surrogate animals, these observations suggest that mechanisms regulating early embryonic development may be conserved among mammalian species and that bovine oocyte cytoplasm can support the introduced differentiated nucleus regardless of chromosome number, species, or age of the donor fibroblast.  (+info)

Antimalarial activities of WR-194,965, an alpha-amino-o-cresol derivative. (58/4345)

Pilot appraisals of the activities of WR-194,965 and WR-204,165, two closely related o-cresol derivatives (both Mannich bases), in owl monkeys infected with the multidrug-resistant Vietnam Smith strain of Plasmodium falciparum showed that these compounds had similar levels of efficacy. Total course doses effecting 90% cures (CD(90)s) were 27 and 37 mg/kg of body weight for the respective compounds, values almost identical to the CD(90) of mefloquine (a highly promising 4-quinolinemethanol) against infections with the same strain, and the CD(90)s of chloroquine against infections with 4-aminoquinoline-susceptible strains. Expanded studies of the activities of WR-194,965 against infections with the Smith strain of P. falciparum and Vietnam Palo Alto strain of P. vivax, designed to guide projected evaluations in human volunteers, showed: (i) that the activity of this compound was a function of total dose administered, with single doses as effective as the same amount delivered in three or seven successive daily fractions; (ii) that all regimens effected rapid clearance of parasitemia; and (iii) that based on CD(90)s, this agent was twice as active against infections with the Palo Alto strain of P. vivax as against the Smith strain of P. falciparum. These findings, together with results of preclinical pharmacological studies pursued elsewhere, provided support for studies in human volunteers now underway.  (+info)

Antimalarial activities of the 4-quinolinemethanols WR-184,806 and WR-226,253. (59/4345)

WR-184,806 and WR-226,253, two 4-quinolinemethanols structurally similar to WR-142,490 (mefloquine), have been studied in depth in owl monkeys infected with various drug-resistant and drug-susceptible strains of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax in an effort to provide support and guidance for projected evaluations in human volunteers. The results of these studies, confirmatory of preliminary appraisals, showed that WR-184,806 was approximately one-third as active as WR-142,490 against infections with a multidrug-resistant strain of P. falciparum, whereas WR-226,253 was twice as active. Additionally, the current studies showed: (i) that both WR-184,806 and WR-226,253 were significantly more active against infections with blood schizonts of P. vivax than against those of P. falciparum; (ii) that their activities against established infections with either Plasmodium species were functions of the total doses delivered, single doses being as effective as three or seven fractional doses given on successive days; (iii) that WR-184,806 could be administered intravenously as the phosphate salt and was curative via this route in single doses; and (iv) that based on comparative curative doses, WR-184,806 was slightly more active and WR-226,253 was seven times more active against infections with a multidrug-resistant strain of P. falciparum than was chloroquine against infections with a 4-aminoquinoline-susceptible strain.  (+info)

Anaerobic fecal bacteria of the baboon. (60/4345)

The predominant bacterial genera of baboon feces were enumerated and identified by established procedures. The predominant genera isolated were Lactobacillus, Eubacterium, Streptococcus, and Bacteroides.  (+info)

Intimal thickening and hyperlipidemia in experimental primate vascular autografts. (61/4345)

Intimal thickening is a significant cause of late failure of aorto-coronary vein grafts. The microscopic appearance of this thickening has some similarities to the microscopic appearance of arterial atherosclerosis, and it has been suggested that hyperlipidemia may play a role in its pathogenesis. This study examines the morphology and lipid composition of autologous vein and artery grafts in normal and hyperlipidemic rhesus monkeys. Grafts were examined six months after insertion by light and electron microscopy and tissue lipids were determined quantitatively. Intimal thickening occurred in all grafts. Specific morphological and lipid compositional features of the grafts were influenced by the type of tissue used for grafting and the presence or absence of hyperlipidemia. However, the degree of intimal thickening per se could not be related to either of these two factors. It is concluded that surgical transplantation in this model provides the most powerful stimulus for intimal thickening and any additional effect on this process by hyperlipidemia is small.  (+info)

Electrophysiological correlates of pulsatile and surge gonadotrophin secretion. (62/4345)

The hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator governs intermittent discharges of GnRH into the pituitary portal circulation and, consequently, modulates the pulsatile pattern of gonadotrophin secretion. Electrophysiological correlates of pulsatile gonadotrophin secretion have been demonstrated in the mediobasal hypothalamus of monkeys, rats and goats by recording multiple unit activity. A temporal coincidence between characteristic increases in multiple unit activity and gonadotrophin pulses in the circulation is seen under a variety of physiological and experimental conditions in all three species examined, providing evidence that hypothalamic multiple unit activity originates in the GnRH pulse generator. During a preovulatory gonadotrophin surge induced by oestrogen in ovariectomized animals or occurring spontaneously in intact animals, GnRH pulse generator activity is decelerated, suggesting that it is not involved in generating the gonadotrophin surge. The gonadotrophin surge may be generated by an oestrogen-responsive neuronal complex intrinsically different from the GnRH pulse generator, the electrical operation of which remains unknown.  (+info)

Effector recognition by the small GTP-binding proteins Ras and Ral. (63/4345)

The Ral effector protein RLIP76 (also called RIP/RalBP1) binds to Ral.GTP via a region that shares no sequence homology with the Ras-binding domains of the Ser/Thr kinase c-Raf-1 and the Ral-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors. Whereas the Ras-binding domains have a similar ubiquitin-like structure, the Ral-binding domain of RLIP was predicted to comprise a coiled-coil region. In order to obtain more information about the specificity and the structural mode of the interaction between Ral and RLIP, we have performed a sequence space and a mutational analysis. The sequence space analysis of a comprehensive nonredundant assembly of Ras-like proteins strongly indicated that positions 36 and 37 in the core of the effector region are tree-determinant positions for all subfamilies of Ras-like proteins and dictate the specificity of the interaction of these GTPases with their effector proteins. Indeed, we could convert the specific interaction with Ras effectors and RLIP by mutating these residues in Ras and Ral. We therefore conclude that positions 36 and 37 are critical for the discrimination between Ras and Ral effectors and that, despite the absence of sequence homology between the Ral-binding and the Ras-binding domains, their mode of interaction is most probably similar.  (+info)

Identification of the RNA-binding, dimerization, and eIF4GI-binding domains of rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP3. (64/4345)

The rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP3 is a sequence-specific RNA binding protein that binds the nonpolyadenylated 3' end of the rotavirus mRNAs. NSP3 also interacts with the translation initiation factor eIF4GI and competes with the poly(A) binding protein. Deletion mutations and point mutations of NSP3 from group A rotavirus (NSP3A), expressed in Escherichia coli, indicate that the RNA binding domain lies between amino acids 4 and 149. Similar results were obtained with NSP3 from group C rotaviruses. Data also indicate that a dimer of NSP3A binds one molecule of RNA and that dimerization is necessary for strong RNA binding. The dimerization domain of NSP3 was mapped between amino acids 150 and 206 by using the yeast two-hybrid system. The eukaryotic initiation factor 4 GI subunit (eIF-4GI) binding domain of NSP3A has been mapped in the last 107 amino acids of its C terminus by using a pulldown assay and the yeast two-hybrid system. NSP3 is composed of two functional domains separated by a dimerization domain.  (+info)