The ShBle resistance determinant from Streptoalloteichus hindustanus is expressed in Haloferax volcanii and confers resistance to bleomycin.
We have designed a gene cassette for expression of the bleomycin-resistance protein from Streptoalloteichus hindustanus (ShBle) in the extremely halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii, and shown that transformed haloarchaea are resistant to bleomycin. Recombinant ShBle was purified by a one-step affinity-chromatography procedure as a correctly folded, dimeric protein. ShBle thus provides a useful haloarchaeal selectable marker and represents the first non-halophilic and soluble heterologous protein to be expressed in the Haloarchaea. (+info)
Puromycin-rRNA interaction sites at the peptidyl transferase center.
The binding site of puromycin was probed chemically in the peptidyl-transferase center of ribosomes from Escherichia coli and of puromycin-hypersensitive ribosomes from the archaeon Haloferax gibbonsii. Several nucleotides of the 23S rRNAs showed altered chemical reactivities in the presence of puromycin. They include A2439, G2505, and G2553 for E. coli, and G2058, A2503, G2505, and G2553 for Hf. gibbonsii (using the E. coli numbering system). Reproducible enhanced reactivities were also observed at A508 and A1579 within domains I and III, respectively, of E. coli 23S rRNA. In further experiments, puromycin was shown to produce a major reduction in the UV-induced crosslinking of deacylated-(2N3A76)tRNA to U2506 within the P' site of E. coli ribosomes. Moreover, it strongly stimulated the putative UV-induced crosslink between a streptogramin B drug and m2A2503/psi2504 at an adjacent site in E. coli 23S rRNA. These data strongly support the concept that puromycin, along with other peptidyl-transferase antibiotics, in particular the streptogramin B drugs, bind to an RNA structural motif that contains several conserved and accessible base moieties of the peptidyl transferase loop region. This streptogramin motif is also likely to provide binding sites for the 3' termini of the acceptor and donor tRNAs. In contrast, the effects at A508 and A1579, which are located at the exit site of the peptide channel, are likely to be caused by a structural effect transmitted along the peptide channel. (+info)
Use of a halobacterial bgaH reporter gene to analyse the regulation of gene expression in halophilic archaea.
The bgaH reading frame encoding a beta-galactosidase of 'Haloferax alicantei' was used as a reporter gene to investigate three different promoter regions derived from gvpA genes of Haloferax mediterranei (mc-gvpA) and Halobacterium salinarum (c-gvpA and p-gvpA) in Haloferax volcanii transformants. The fusion of bgaH at the start codon of each gvpA reading frame (A1-bgaH fusion genes) caused translational problems in some cases. Transformants containing constructs with fusions further downstream in the gvpA reading frame (A-bgaH) produced beta-galactosidase, and colonies on agar plates turned blue when sprayed with X-Gal. The beta-galactosidase activities quantified by standard ONPG assays correlated well with the mRNA data determined with transformants containing the respective gvpA genes: the cA-bgaH fusion gene was completely inactive, the mcA-bgaH transformants showed low amounts of products, whereas the pA-bgaH fusion gene was constitutively expressed in the respective transformants. The transcription of each A-bgaH gene was activated by the homologous transcriptional activator protein GvpE. The cGvpE, pGvpE and mcGvpE proteins were able to activate the promoter of pA-bgaH and mcA-bgaH, whereas the promoter of cA-bgaH was only activated by cGvpE. Among the three GvpE proteins tested, cGvpE appeared to be the strongest transcriptional activator. (+info)
Post-translational modification of the S-layer glycoprotein occurs following translocation across the plasma membrane of the haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii.
The halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii is surrounded by a protein shell solely comprised of the S-layer glycoprotein. While the gene sequence and glycosylation pattern of the protein and indeed the three-dimensional structure of the surface layer formed by the protein have been described, little is known of the biosynthesis of the S-layer glycoprotein. In the following, pulse-chase radiolabeling and cell-fractionation studies were employed to reveal that newly synthesized S-layer glycoprotein undergoes a maturation step following translocation of the protein across the plasma membrane. The processing step, detected as an increase in the apparent molecular mass of the S-layer glycoprotein, is unaffected by inhibition of protein synthesis and is apparently unrelated to glycosylation of the protein. Maturation requires the presence of magnesium ions, involved in membrane association of the S-layer glycoprotein, and results in increased hydrophobicity of the protein as revealed by enhanced detergent binding. Thus, along with protein glycosylation, additional post-translational modifications apparently occur on the external face of the haloarchaeal plasma membrane, the proposed topological homologue of the lumenal face of the eukaryal endoplasmic reticulum membrane. (+info)
Haloferax alexandrinus sp. nov., an extremely halophilic canthaxanthin-producing archaeon from a solar saltern in Alexandria (Egypt).
An extremely halophilic red micro-organism designated strain TM(T) was isolated from a solar saltern in Alexandria, Egypt. The micro-organism stains gram-negative, is very pleomorphic, non-motile and strictly aerobic and requires at least 10 g NaCl l(-1) for growth. The growth optimum is 250 g NaCl l(-1). Growth is also observed over a wide range of MgSO4 concentrations (10-40 g l(-1)). Aerobic reduction of nitrate without gas production was detected. Cells grew aerobically in a minimal salts medium containing ammonium chloride and glucose. Strain TM(T) produced acid from fructose, glucose, rhamnose, maltose and glycerol. The G+C content of the DNA was 59.5+/-0.3 mol %. On the basis of polar lipid analysis, the isolate belonged to the genus Haloferax. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence showed the highest similarity (>99%) to be to the type strain Haloferax volcanii. Although the spectrum of antibiotic susceptibility was similar to that of validly described species of the genus Haloferax, the strain could be distinguished from them by its different response to josamycin and rifampicin. Strain TM(T) is unique within the genus Haloferax in producing canthaxanthin. Comparative analysis of phenotypic properties and DNA-DNA hybridization between strain TM(T) and Haloferax species supported the conclusion that TM(T) is a novel species within this genus, for which the name Haloferax alexandrinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TM(T) (= JCM 10717T = IFO 16590T). (+info)
Lipid modification of proteins in Archaea: attachment of a mevalonic acid-based lipid moiety to the surface-layer glycoprotein of Haloferax volcanii follows protein translocation.
Once the newly synthesized surface (S)-layer glycoprotein of the halophilic archaeaon Haloferax volcanii has traversed the plasma membrane, the protein undergoes a membrane-related, Mg(2+)-dependent maturation event, revealed as an increase in the apparent molecular mass and hydrophobicity of the protein. To test whether lipid modification of the S-layer glycoprotein could explain these observations, H. volcanii cells were incubated with a radiolabelled precursor of isoprene, [(3)H]mevalonic acid. In Archaea, isoprenoids serve as the major hydrophobic component of archaeal membrane lipids and have been shown to modify other haloarchaeal S-layer glycoproteins, although little is known of the mechanism, site or purpose of such modification. In the present study we report that the H. volcanii S-layer glycoprotein is modified by a derivative of mevalonic acid and that maturation of the protein was prevented upon treatment with mevinolin (lovastatin), an inhibitor of mevalonic acid biosynthesis. These findings suggest that lipid modification of S-layer glycoproteins is a general property of halophilic archaea and, like S-layer glycoprotein glycosylation, lipid-modification of the S-layer glycoproteins takes place on the external cell surface, i.e. following protein translocation across the membrane. (+info)
Novel polar lipids of halophilic eubacterium Planococcus H8 and archaeon Haloferax volcanii.
As part of a study to identify novel lipids with immune adjuvant activity, a structural comparison was made between the polar lipids from two halophiles, an archaeon Haloferax volcanii and a eubacterium Planococcus H8. H. volcanii polar lipid extracts consisted of 44% archaetidylglycerol methylphosphate, 35% archaetidylglycerol, 4.7% of archaeal cardiolipin, 2.5% archaetidic acid, and 14% sulfated glycolipids 1 and 2. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB MS) data determined the glycolipids to be 6-HSO(3)-D-Man(p)-alpha1-2-D-Glc(p)-alpha1,1-[sn-2,3-di-O-phytanylglycerol] and a novel glycocardiolipin 6'-HSO(3)-D-Man(p)-alpha1-2-D-Glc(p)-alpha1,1-[sn-2,3-di-O-phytanylglycerol]-6-[p hospho-sn-2,3-di-O-phytanylglycerol]. The polar lipids of Planococcus H8 consisted of 49% saturated phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin (9:1, w/w), and surprisingly 51% of the photosynthetic membrane lipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG). This study documents archaeal cardiolipin and a novel glycocardiolipin in H. volcanii (lacking purple membrane), and is the first report of SQDG in a non-photosynthetic, halophilic bacterium. (+info)
Combined use of cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent methods indicates that members of most haloarchaeal groups in an Australian crystallizer pond are cultivable.
Haloarchaea are the dominant microbial flora in hypersaline waters with near-saturating salt levels. The haloarchaeal diversity of an Australian saltern crystallizer pond was examined by use of a library of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes and by cultivation. High viable counts (10(6) CFU/ml) were obtained on solid media. Long incubation times (> or =8 weeks) appeared to be more important than the medium composition for maximizing viable counts and diversity. Of 66 isolates examined, all belonged to the family Halobacteriaceae, including members related to species of the genera Haloferax, Halorubrum, and Natronomonas. In addition, isolates belonging to a novel group (the ADL group), previously detected only as 16S rRNA genes in an Antarctic hypersaline lake (Deep Lake), were cultivated for the first time. The 16S rRNA gene library identified the following five main groups: Halorubrum groups 1 and 2 (49%), the SHOW (square haloarchaea of Walsby) group (33%), the ADL group (16%), and the Natronomonas group (2%). There were two significant differences between the organisms detected in cultivation and 16S rRNA sequence results. Firstly, Haloferax spp. were frequently isolated on plates (15% of all isolates) but were not detected in the 16S rRNA sequences. Control experiments indicated that a bias against Haloferax sequences in the generation of the 16S rRNA gene library was unlikely, suggesting that Haloferax spp. readily form colonies, even though they were not a dominant group. Secondly, while the 16S rRNA gene library identified the SHOW group as a major component of the microbial community, no isolates of this group were obtained. This inability to culture members of the SHOW group remains an outstanding problem in studying the ecology of hypersaline environments. (+info)