Haloanaerobacter salinarius sp. nov., a novel halophilic fermentative bacterium that reduces glycine-betaine to trimethylamine with hydrogen or serine as electron donors; emendation of the genus Haloanaerobacter. (1/193)

A novel halophilic fermentative bacterium has been isolated from the black sediment below a gypsum crust and a microbial mat in hypersaline ponds of Mediterranean salterns. Morphologically, physiologically and genetically this organism belongs to the genus Haloanaerobacter. Haloanaerobacter strain SG 3903T (T = type strain) is composed of non-sporulating long flexible rods with peritrichous flagella, able to grow in the salinity range of 5-30% NaCl, with an optimum at 14-15%. The strain grows by fermenting carbohydrates or by using the Stickland reaction with either serine or H2 as electron donors and glycine-betaine as acceptor, which is reduced to trimethylamine. The two species described so far in the genus Haloanaerobacter are not capable of Stickland reaction with glycine-betaine + serine; however, Haloanaerobacter chitinovorans can use glycine-betaine with H2 as electron donor. Strain SG 3903T thus represents the first described strain in the genus Haloanaerobacter capable of the Stickland reaction with two amino acids. Although strain SG 3903T showed 67% DNA-DNA relatedness to H. chitinovorans, it is physiologically sufficiently different from the two described species to be considered as a new species which has been named Haloanaerobacter salinarius sp. nov.  (+info)

Halobacterial rhodopsins. (2/193)

Following the discovery of the bacteriorhodopsin proton pump in Halobacterium halobium (salinarum), not only the halorhodopsin halide pump and two photosensor rhodopsins (sensory rhodopsin and phoborhodopsin) in the same species, but also homologs of these four rhodopsins in strains of other genera of Halobacteriaceae have been reported. Twenty-eight full (and partial) sequences of the genomic DNA of these rhodopsins have been analyzed. The deduced amino acid sequences have led to new strategies and tactics for understanding bacterial rhodopsins on a comparative basis, as summarized briefly in this article. The data discussed include (i) alignment of the sequences to qualify/characterize the conserved residues; (ii) assignment of residues that cause differences in function(s)/properties; and (iii) phylogeny of the halobacterial rhodopsins to suggest their evolutionary paths. The four kinds of rhodopsin in each strain are assumed, on the basis of their genera-specific distributions, to have arisen by at least two gene-duplication processes during evolution prior to generic speciation. The first duplication of the rhodopsin ancestor gene yielded two genes, each of which was duplicated again to give four genes in the ancestor halobacterium. The bacterium carrying four rhodopsin genes, after accumulating mutations, became ready for generic speciation and the delivery of four rhodopsins to each species. The original rhodopsin ancestor is speculated to be closest to the proton pump (bacteriorhodopsin).  (+info)

The effect of carboxyl group modification on the chromophore regeneration of archaeopsin-1 and bacterioopsin. (3/193)

Carboxyl group modification with DCCD and NCD-4 was employed to investigate the chemical environment of the side chains of archaeopsin-1 (aO-1) and bacterioopsin (bO). Some differences were observed between aO-1 and bO. Although DCCD or NCD-4 did not modify aO-1 in bleached membrane, they modified bO in bleached membrane and in mixed DMPC/CHAPS/SDS micelles at neutral pH, thereby affecting the opsin shift and the photocycle of the regenerated chromophore. On the contrary, after solubilization with SDS, aO-1 and bO were modified by DCCD and NCD-4, which decreased the chromophore regeneration. In particular, the reaction of aO-1 in SDS with NCD-4 proceeded in a 1:1 ratio at neutral pH. The fluorescence and CD spectra indicated that the modified site was located in the hydrophobic, asymmetrical region. Lysyl-endopeptidase digestion of NCD-4 modified aO-1 produced a fluorescent fragment and amino acid sequence analysis showed that Asp85 or Asp96 in helix C is a probable candidate for the modified residue at present. Kinetic CD measurements revealed that the introduction of N-acylurea at an Asp residue in helix C did not affect the formation of the transient intermediate but inhibited the side chain packing during refolding.  (+info)

Bioenergetic aspects of halophilism. (4/193)

Examination of microbial diversity in environments of increasing salt concentrations indicates that certain types of dissimilatory metabolism do not occur at the highest salinities. Examples are methanogenesis for H2 + CO2 or from acetate, dissimilatory sulfate reduction with oxidation of acetate, and autotrophic nitrification. Occurrence of the different metabolic types is correlated with the free-energy change associated with the dissimilatory reactions. Life at high salt concentrations is energetically expensive. Most bacteria and also the methanogenic Archaea produce high intracellular concentrations of organic osmotic solutes at a high energetic cost. All halophilic microorganisms expend large amounts of energy to maintain steep gradients of NA+ and K+ concentrations across their cytoplasmic membrane. The energetic cost of salt adaptation probably dictates what types of metabolism can support life at the highest salt concentrations. Use of KCl as an intracellular solute, while requiring far-reaching adaptations of the intracellular machinery, is energetically more favorable than production of organic-compatible solutes. This may explain why the anaerobic halophilic fermentative bacteria (order Haloanaerobiales) use this strategy and also why halophilic homoacetogenic bacteria that produce acetate from H2 + CO2 exist whereas methanogens that use the same substrates in a reaction with a similar free-energy yield do not.  (+info)

Structural diversity of membrane lipids in members of Halobacteriaceae. (5/193)

This minireview gives an updated and consolidated summary of taxonomic classification correlated with membrane phospholipid, glycolipid, and core lipid structural diversity within the family Halobacteriaceae. We also point out that the recently reported diversity in the membrane core lipid structure of a putative strain of Halobacterium (Halobacterium halobium strain IAM 13167) (Morita et al., Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 62, 596-598, 1998) is not correct since the strain used by the authors has for some time been recognized not to be a member of the genus Halobacterium but a member of halobacteria group 2 (Grant and Larsen, Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Vol.3, pp. 2216-2233, 1989), which has recently been designated as a new genus, Natrinema (McGenity et al., Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 48, 1187-1196, 1998).  (+info)

Halorhabdus utahensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an aerobic, extremely halophilic member of the Archaea from Great Salt Lake, Utah. (6/193)

Strain AX-2T (T = type strain) was isolated from sediment of Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA. Optimal salinity for growth was 27% (w/v) NaCl and only a few carbohydrates supported growth of the strain. Strain AX-2T did not grow on complex substrates such as yeast extract or peptone. 16S rRNA analysis revealed that strain AX-2T was a member of the phyletic group defined by the family Halobacteriaceae, but there was a low degree of similarity to other members of this family. The polar lipid composition comprising phosphatidyl glycerol, the methylated derivative of diphosphatidyl glycerol, triglycosyl diethers and sulfated triglycosyl diethers, but not phosphatidyl glycerosulfate, was not identical to that of any other aerobic, halophilic species. On the basis of the data presented, it is proposed that strain AX-2T should be placed in a new taxon, for which the name Halorhabdus utahensis is appropriate. The type strain is strain AX-2T (= DSM 12940T).  (+info)

Natrinema versiforme sp. nov., an extremely halophilic archaeon from Aibi salt lake, Xinjiang, China. (7/193)

A novel extremely halophilic archaeon, strain XF10T, was isolated from a salt lake in China. This organism was neutrophilic, non-motile and pleomorphic, and was rod, coccus or irregularly shaped. It required at least 1.5 M NaCl for growth and grew in a wide range of MgCl2 concentrations (0.005-0.5 M). Lipid extract of whole cells contained two glycolipids with the same chromatographic properties as two unidentified glycolipids found in the two described Natrinema species, Natrinema pellirubrum and Natrinema pallidum. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequence comparison revealed that strain XF10T clustered with the two described Natrinema species and several other strains (strains T5.7, GSL-11 and Haloterrigena turkmenica JCM 9743) with more than 98.1% sequence similarities, suggesting that strain XF1OT belongs to the genus Natrinema. Comparative analysis of phenotypic properties and DNA-DNA hybridization between strain XF10T and the Natrinema species supported the conclusion that strain XF10T is a novel species within the genus Natrinema. The name Natrinema versiforme sp. nov. is proposed for this strain. The type strain is XF10T (=JCM 10478T=AS 1.2365T=ANMR 0149T).  (+info)

Halocin S8: a 36-amino-acid microhalocin from the haloarchaeal strain S8a. (8/193)

Halocin S8 is a hydrophobic microhalocin of 36 amino acids (3,580 Da) and is the first microhalocin to be described. This peptide antibiotic is unique since it is processed from inside a much larger, 33,962-Da pro-protein. Halocin S8 is quite robust, as it can be desalted, boiled, subjected to organic solvents, and stored at 4 degrees C for extended periods without losing activity. The complete amino acid sequence of halocin S8 was obtained first by Edman degradation of the purified protein and verified from the halS8 gene: H(2)N-S-D-C-N-I-N-S-N-T-A-A-D-V-I-L-C-F-N-Q-V-G-S-C-A-L-C-S-P-T-L-V-G -G-P-V-P-COOH. The halS8 gene is encoded on an approximately 200-kbp megaplasmid and contains a 933-bp open reading frame, of which 108 bp are occupied by halocin S8. Both the halS8 promoter and the "leaderless" halS8 transcript are typically haloarchaeal. Northern blot analysis revealed three halS8 transcripts: two abundant and one minor. Inspection of the 3' end of the gene showed only a single, weak termination site (5'-TTTAT-3'), suggesting that some processing of the larger transcripts may be involved. Expression of the halS8 gene is growth stage dependent: basal halS8 transcript levels are present in low concentrations during exponential growth but increase ninefold during the transition to stationary phase. Initially, halocin activity parallels halS8 transcript levels very closely. However, when halocin activity plateaus, transcripts remain abundant, suggesting inhibition of translation at this point. Once the culture enters stationary phase, transcripts rapidly return to basal levels.  (+info)