Insertion of the abductor hallucis muscle in feet with and without hallux valgus.
Textbooks of human anatomy present different opinions on the insertion of the abductor hallucis muscle which is concerned in etiology as well as in therapy of hallux valgus. In plastic and reconstructive surgery the muscle is taken as a graft for flap-surgery. In this study 109 feet (58 right, 51 left) were examined, 18 of these with clinical hallux valgus. The tendon of the muscle may attach to the tendon of the medial head of the short flexor hallucis muscle where a subtendineous bursa can be found. At the head of the first metatarsal bone the joint capsule is reinforced by fibres arising from the medial sesamoid bone which may be called "medial sesamoidal ligament." The tendon passes the first metatarsophalangeal joint plantarily to its transverse axis. Three types of insertion could be distinguished: type A, insertion at the proximal phalanx (N = 42); type B, insertion at the medial sesamoid ligament and at the medial sesamoid bone (N = 65); type C, insertion at the medial sesamoid bone (N = 2). In all types superficial fibres of the tendon extended to the medial and plantar sides of the base of the proximal phalanx, running in a plantar to dorsal direction. Statistical analysis exposed neither significant differences between both sides nor significant difference between normal feet and feet with hallux valgus. Therefore, a specific pattern of insertion of the abductor hallucis muscle in hallux valgus cannot be stated. (+info)
Screw versus suture fixation of Mitchell's osteotomy. A prospective, randomised study.
We studied prospectively 30 patients who had a Mitchell's osteotomy secured by either a suture followed by immobilisation in a plaster boot for six weeks, or by a cortical screw with early mobilisation. The mean time for return to social activities after fixation by a screw was 2.9 weeks and to work 4.9 weeks, which was significantly earlier than those who had stabilisation by a suture (5.7 and 8.7 weeks, respectively; p < 0.001). Use of a screw also produced a higher degree of patient satisfaction at six weeks, and an earlier return to wearing normal footwear. The improvement in forefoot scores was significantly greater after fixation by a screw at six weeks (p = 0.036) and three months (p = 0.024). At one year, two screws had been removed because of pain at the site of the screw head. Internal fixation of Mitchell's osteotomy by a screw allows the safe early mobilisation of patients and reduces the time required for convalescence. (+info)
Chevron osteotomy for hallux valgus--SGH experience.
Thirty-one chevron osteotomies for hallux valgus performed over a period of four years were reviewed. Their follow-up period ranged from one to five years. All the patients had pain over the bunion prior to operation. After operation, there was marked decrease of pain over the first matatarsophalangeal joint. The preoperative hallux valgus angle average 27 degrees and the postoperative angle averaged 12 degrees. The preoperative intermetatarsal angle averaged 13 degrees and the postoperative angle, 8 degrees. Ninety-one per cent of the patients were satisfied with the result of the procedure. (+info)
The musculoskeletal manifestations of Werner's syndrome.
Werner's syndrome is a rare condition usually presenting as premature ageing in adults. Over a period of 30 years we have followed two siblings with extensive musculoskeletal manifestations including a soft-tissue tumour, insufficiency fractures, nonunion and tendonitis, with associated problems of management. The literature is reviewed. (+info)
An investigation of the centres of pressure under the foot while walking.
The forces under the foot while walking have been measured using a high sensitivity force-plate of the strip-suspended type combined with simultaneous filming of the sole of the foot. The recording of data and the calculation and plotting of results were much simplified by computer aid. Normal and abnormal feet, both barefoot and shod, were investigated in sixteen subjects. It was found that in normal barefoot walking the forefoot carried a total load of the order of three times that of the heel. When footwear was worn the function of the forefoot was progressively reduced as the rigidity of the sole of the shoe increased. Painful conditions of the forefoot also produced a large reduction in the proportion of the total load transferred. (+info)
The surgical anatomy of the dorsomedial cutaneous nerve of the hallux.
Most techniques described for the correction of hallux valgus require exposure of the distal aspect of the first metatarsal. A dorsomedial incision is often recommended. Texts counsel against damaging the dorsal digital nerve, as a painful neuroma is an unwelcome surgical complication. Our study on cadavers aimed to investigate the anatomy of the dorsomedial cutaneous nerve in the metatarsophalangeal region, with special reference to surgical incisions. A constant, previously unrecognised branch of the nerve was identified. This branch is likely to be damaged if a dorsomedial approach is used. It is recommended that a mid-medial incision be used instead, i.e. at the junction of the plantar and dorsal skin. (+info)
Surgery for hallux valgus. The expectations of patients and surgeons.
Two-hundred patients who had undergone surgery for hallux valgus were interviewed in an attempt to study the different variables which may have contributed to the success of their surgery. These data were compared to the results obtained by using clinically applied scores. To obtain data on surgeons' expectations, 186 members of two national orthopaedic foot societies were interviewed in order to quantify the importance and value of these variables in prognosis. The main interest of the patients is a painless great toe which, when wearing conventional shoes, gives no problems. They also wish to have their bursitis and bunion treated in order to regain their ability to walk as much as they wish. Surgeons are not only specially interested in pain and shoe problems but also in restoring an adequate range of motion in the metatarsophalangeal joint (MTP), removal of the bunion and the treatment of tender callosities. We found that the correction of footwear problems, alleviation of pain and restoration of adequate walking are the most important factors influencing the outcome of surgery. It was surprising that these expectations are only partly revealed by using clinical foot scores. (+info)
A comparison between forefoot plaster and wooden soled shoes following Mitchell's osteotomy for hallux valgus.
Between 1 October 1997 and 1 November 1998, 43 patients (59 feet) were treated with a standard Mitchell's osteotomy for hallux valgus. Of these, 26 patients (36 feet) were treated postoperatively in a forefoot plaster. The other 17 patients (23 feet) were treated with a wooden soled shoe. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups for age, indication for surgery, pre-operative deformity or grade of the operating surgeon. There was no significant difference in the mean time immobilised, mean time to union or complications. The patients were interviewed by telephone after a mean follow-up of 9.4 months. There was no significant difference in results between the 2 groups. This suggests that a forefoot plaster following Mitchell's osteotomy is unnecessary. Postoperative mobilisation in a wooden soled shoe can be used as an alternative. (+info)