The aetiology of congenital angulation of tubular bones with constriction of the medullary canal, and its relationship to congenital pseudarthrosis.
It is suggested that there is a group of cases of congenital angulation of tubular bones in which the lesion is a defect of ossification of the primary cartilaginous anlage and in which neurofibromatosis is not implicated. It appears that in this group the prognosis with regard to the resolution of deformity and the prevention of pseudarthrosis with conservative treatment or relatively simple surgical procedures is better than that in the neurofibromatous type. (+info)
Dropped hallux after the intramedullary nailing of tibial fractures.
We made a prospective study of 208 patients with tibial fractures treated by reamed intramedullary nailing. Of these, 11 (5.3%) developed dysfunction of the peroneal nerve with no evidence of a compartment syndrome. The patients with this complication were significantly younger (mean age 25.6 years) and most had closed fractures of the forced-varus type with relatively minor soft-tissue damage. The fibula was intact in three, fractured in the distal or middle third in seven, with only one fracture in the proximal third. Eight of the 11 patients showed a 'dropped hallux' syndrome, with weakness of extensor hallucis longus and numbness in the first web space, but no clinical involvement of extensor digitorum longus or tibialis anterior. This was confirmed by nerve-conduction studies in three of the eight patients. There was good recovery of muscle function within three to four months in all cases, but after one year three patients still had some residual tightness of extensor hallucis longus, and two some numbness in the first web space. No patient required further treatment. (+info)
The surgical anatomy of the dorsomedial cutaneous nerve of the hallux.
Most techniques described for the correction of hallux valgus require exposure of the distal aspect of the first metatarsal. A dorsomedial incision is often recommended. Texts counsel against damaging the dorsal digital nerve, as a painful neuroma is an unwelcome surgical complication. Our study on cadavers aimed to investigate the anatomy of the dorsomedial cutaneous nerve in the metatarsophalangeal region, with special reference to surgical incisions. A constant, previously unrecognised branch of the nerve was identified. This branch is likely to be damaged if a dorsomedial approach is used. It is recommended that a mid-medial incision be used instead, i.e. at the junction of the plantar and dorsal skin. (+info)
Somatotopic organization of human secondary somatosensory cortex.
This fMRI study investigated the human somatosensory system, especially the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), with respect to its potential somatotopic organization. Eight subjects received electrical stimulation on their right second finger, fifth finger and hallux. Within SII, the typical finding for both fingers was a representation site within the contralateral parietal operculum roughly halfway between the lip of the lateral sulcus and its fundus, whereas the representation site of the hallux was found more medially to this position at the fundus of the lateral sulcus, near the posterior pole of the insula. Somatotopy in SII seems to be less fine-grained than in primary somatosensory cortex (SI), as, in contrast to SI, no separate representations of the two fingers in SII were observed. A similar somatotopic representation pattern between fingers and the hallux was also observed within ipsilateral SII, indicating somatotopy of contra- as well as ipsilateral SII using unilateral stimulation. Further areas exhibiting activation were found in the superior and inferior parietal lobule, in the supplementary and cingulate motor area, and in the insula. (+info)
Interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility of peripheral blood and oxygen pressure measurements in the assessment of lower extremity arterial disease.
INTRODUCTION: Peripheral blood pressure measurements play a prominent role in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with peripheral vascular diseases. Toe pressure of the hallux (TP1) and second toe (TP2) and transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TCPO2) measurements are becoming more important. The ankle/brachial pressure index (ABPI) is known to be a reliable parameter, but the toe pressure and TCPO2 are evaluated less thoroughly. Therefore, we evaluated the reproducibility of TP1, TP2, TCPO2, ABPI, ankle pressure (AP), and brachial pressure (BP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 54 patients with various stages of peripheral vascular disease, the intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility of BP, AP, ABPI, TP1, TP2, and TCPO2 was investigated by calculating the repeatability coefficient (RC) and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and by using Bland-Altman plots. RESULTS: The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility at 1 day and after 1 week of BP, AP, ABPI, and TP1 was substantial and comparable (ICC range, 0.80-0.99), except for the BP after 1 week. The TP2 and TCPO2 were less reproducible (ICC range, 0.62-0.98). The interobserver RC of BP was 31 mm Hg; of AP, 44 mm Hg; of ABPI, 27%; of TP1, 41 mm Hg; of TP2, 67 mm Hg; and of TCPO2; 30 mm Hg. The difference plot showed that the observer variability was equally distributed across the range of pressure in all measurements. CONCLUSION: The BP, AP, ABPI, and TP1 have a substantial intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility, whereas TP2 and TCPO2 show worse reproducibility. Especially when low values (or values around a cutoff value) are measured, the RC should be taken into account, and repetition of the measurement is advocated. (+info)
Irreducible dislocation of the hallucal interphalangeal joint.
Irreducible dislocation of the hallucal interphalangeal joint is a rare condition, with only 41 cases reported in the literature. We present a patient with a Miki type 2 irreducible dislocation of the hallucal interphalangeal joint and review literature pertinent to this condition. (+info)
Grasping primate origins.
The evolutionary history that led to Eocene-and-later primates of modern aspect (Euprimates) has been uncertain. We describe a skeleton of Paleocene plesiadapiform Carpolestes simpsoni that includes most of the skull and many postcranial bones. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that Carpolestidae are closely related to Euprimates. C. simpsoni had long fingers and an opposable hallux with a nail. It lacked orbital convergence and an ankle specialized for leaping. We infer that the ancestor of Euprimates was primitively an arboreal grasper adapted for terminal branch feeding rather than a specialized leaper or visually directed predator. (+info)
Percutaneous screw fixation for fractures of the sesamoid bones of the hallux.
Over a period of one year we treated nine fractures ofhe sesamoid bones of the hallux, five of which were in the medial sesamoid. All patients had symptoms on exercise, but only one had a recent history of injury. The mean age of the patients was 27 years (17 to 45) and there were six men. The mean duration of symptoms was nine months (1.5 to 48). The diagnosis was based on clinical and radiological investigations. We describe a new surgical technique for percutaneous screw fixation for these fractures using a Barouk screw. All the patients were assessed before and after surgery using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Hallux Score (AOFAS). There was a statistically significant improvement in the mean score from 46.9 to 80.7 (p = 0.0003) after fixation of the fracture with a rapid resolution of symptoms. All patients returned to their previous level of activity by three months. We believe that this relatively simple technique is an excellent method of treatment in appropriately selected patients. (+info)