Chemical hair treatments and adverse pregnancy outcome among Black women in central North Carolina.
Several studies suggest that toxic chemicals in hair products may be absorbed through the scalp in sufficient amounts to increase the risks of adverse health effects in women or their infants. This case-control study of 525 Black women from three counties in North Carolina who had delivered a singleton, liveborn infant examined whether exposure to chemicals used in hair straightening and curling increased the odds that the infant was preterm or low birth weight. Cases consisted of 188 preterm and 156 low birth weight births (for 123 women, their infant was both low birth weight and preterm). Controls were 304 women who delivered term and normal birth weight infants. Women who used a chemical hair straightener at any time during pregnancy or within 3 months prior to conception had an adjusted odds ratios (OR) of 0.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-1.1) for preterm birth and 0.6 (95% CI 0.4-1.1) for low birth weight. Exposure to chemical curl products was also not associated with preterm delivery (adjusted OR = 0.9, 95% CI 0.5-1.8) or low birth weight (adjusted OR = 1.0, 95% CI 0.5-1.9). Despite this failure to find an association, continued search for risk factors to which Black women are uniquely exposed is warranted. (+info)
Are cannabinoids detected in hair after washing with Cannabio shampoo?
Today, cannabis plants are used in shampoo preparations, in foodstuffs (e.g., oils, noodles, crackers, etc.), and in beverages (e.g., tea). These products often contain < 1% delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in order to eliminate psychoactive effects, but some of them can include 1 to 3% of THC. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of Cannabio shampoo revealed the presence of THC (412 ng/mL) and two constituents of cannabis plants, cannabidiol (CBD, 4079 ng/mL) and cannabinol (CBN, 380 ng/mL). In order to verify if normal hygiene practices with Cannabio shampoo can result in positive tests for cannabinoids in hair, three subjects washed their hair with this shampoo once daily for two weeks. After this period, hair specimens were collected. In the three hair specimens, THC, CBD, and CBN were never detected within their limits of detection, 0.05, 0.02, and 0.01 ng/mg, respectively. We concluded that the use of Cannabio shampoo during normal hygiene practices cannot be considered as a source of potential contamination of hair. In a second experiment, drug-free hair specimens (200 mg) were incubated in 10 mL water/Cannabio shampoo (20:1, v/v) for 30 min, 2 h, and 5 h. After incubation, hair strands were washed with water and separated into two portions. One portion was extracted directly; the second was decontaminated with methylene chloride and then extracted. After an incubation period of 30 min, the analysis of hair by GC-MS did not reveal the presence of THC, CBD, and CBN in hair, regardless of whether the hair was decontaminated. After an incubation period of 2 h, specimens tested positive for CBD (0.11 ng/mg without decontamination and 0.10 ng/mg with decontamination) and CBN (0.02 ng/mg without decontamination and 0.02 ng/mg after decontamination). After an incubation period of 5 h, specimens tested positive for CBD (0.25 ng/mg without decontamination and 0.14 ng/mg after decontamination) and CBN (0.02 ng/mg without decontamination and 0.02 ng/mg after decontamination). In all cases, THC was never detected. Extensive but unrealistic use of Cannabio shampoo can cause drug-free hair to test positive for CBD and CBN but not for the primary psychoactive drug THC. (+info)
Epidemiologic studies of environmental agents and systemic autoimmune diseases.
Systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic scleroderma are autoimmune diseases thought to have an exogenous trigger. This review summarizes relevant case-control and cohort studies that investigated exogenous sex hormones, silica, silicone, solvents, pesticides, mercuric chloride, and hair dyes as putative risk factors for the development of these diseases. These studies indicate that estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women increases the risk of developing lupus, scleroderma, and Raynaud disease, although the increase in risk is relatively modest. Oral contraceptives may also play a role in disease susceptibility in lupus but not apparently in scleroderma. Environmental endocrine modulators, in the form of pesticides, may represent another opportunity for estrogenlike effects to occur, but there is scant evidence that these agents play a role in human systemic autoimmune disease. Although exposure to silica dust increases the risk of scleroderma in men occupied in the industry, this does not explain most male scleroderma cases. When this exposure was investigated among women, no significant risk was found. Additionally, silicone in implanted devices as well as occupational exposure to silicone-containing compounds did not pose an increased risk among women for scleroderma. The role of solvent exposure has been investigated as a risk factor for scleroderma with mixed findings. One study suggested a potential role in male patients or in those individuals with Scl-70 antibody positivity either male or female. Two other studies were unable to corroborate this finding. Mercuric chloride causes antifibrillarin antibodies and immune complex glomerulonephritis in susceptible mouse strains. Antifibrillarin antibodies, but not glomerulonephritis, occur in a subset of scleroderma patients and preliminary evidence suggests that mercury levels may be higher in this group of individuals. Hair products have been studied as possibly raising the risk of developing lupus, since such products contain an aromatic amine similar to a compound known to cause drug-induced lupus. A 1986 study suggested a positive association, but two subsequent studies did not support this association. (+info)
Risk of hand dermatitis among hairdressers versus office workers.
OBJECTIVES: The risk of irritant skin damage associated with hairdressing was estimated with the individual occupational exposure and other relevant factors having been taken into consideration. METHODS: A cohort of 2352 hairdressing and 111 office apprentices was prospectively followed for the duration of their vocational training (3 years), 3 examinations having been made and 3 years of recruitment having been used [1992 (hairdressers only), 1993, 1994] in 15 vocational training schools in northwest Germany. The information of the final follow-up examination was used for the analysis. RESULTS: A multifactorial analysis taking several (constitutional) risk factors, which were unevenly distributed between the 2 groups, into account revealed a significantly increased risk for hairdressers when compared with office workers (odds ratio approximately 4.0) with a marked decline in the most recently recruited (1994) apprentice group. Other significant factors increasing the dermatitis risk were (i) low ambient absolute humidity, (ii) young age, and (iii) a certain higher range of "atopy score". If the individual profile of occupational exposure among hairdressers was also considered, unprotected wet work of more than 2 hours per day was found to be a significant risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: Good skin protection, as operationalized in the present study, can diminish, but not eliminate, the risk of occupational irritant hand dermatitis among hairdressers. (+info)
Infestation status of head louse and treatment with lindane shampoo in children of primary school and kindergarten in Chinju-shi, Kyongsangnam-do, Korea.
The infestation status of head louse among children attending primary schools and kindergartens in Chinju-shi, Kyongsangnam-do, Korea, was investigated between June and July 1999. Out of 2,288 children examined, 3.9% of boys (48/1,242) and 23.5% of girls (246/1,046) were infested with nits or adult/nymphs of lice. The effectiveness of lindane shampoo (1% gamma benzene hexachloride solution) was evaluated after one or two time applications to all the children infested. The negative conversion rate of pediculosis was 93.5%. Effective control measures are needed to control and prevent such ectoparasite infestation amongst children. (+info)
Treatment of seborrheic dermatitis.
Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting areas of the head and trunk where sebaceous glands are most prominent. Lipophilic yeasts of the Malassezia genus, as well as genetic, environmental and general health factors, contribute to this disorder. Scalp seborrhea varies from mild dandruff to dense, diffuse, adherent scale. Facial and trunk seborrhea is characterized by powdery or greasy scale in skin folds and along hair margins. Treatment options include application of selenium sulfide, pyrithione zinc or ketoconazole-containing shampoos, topical ketoconazole cream or terbinafine solution, topical sodium sulfacetamide and topical corticosteroids. (+info)
Prevalence of airway symptoms among hairdressers in Bergen, Norway.
OBJECTIVE: To assess respiratory symptoms among hairdressers in Norway. METHODS: The study was based on a questionnaire sent to 100 hairdressers (91% responding) and 95 office workers (84% responding). The questionnaire sought information about allergy, respiratory symptoms in the past year, and symptoms after exposures to different types of pollutants, working conditions, and smoking habits. A population based control group was established because the hairdressers and office workers differed in age and smoking habits. RESULTS: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms in the past year did not differ significantly between hairdressers and office workers after adjusting for age, atopy, and smoking. The hairdressers over 40 years of age reported significantly more symptoms-such as wheezing and breathlessness-in the past year than the office workers of the same age. Compared with the population based control group, both hairdressers younger than 30 and those over 40 reported more symptoms-such as breathlessness in the past year. The oldest hairdressers reported such symptoms as wheezing and breathlessness more often than did the younger hairdressers. These differences in breathlessness were significant after adjusting for smoking and wheezing. The same trend was not found among the office workers. The hairdressers reported significantly more wheezing, breathlessness, runny eyes, and blocked or runny nose from exposure to hair dyes, permanent oils, bleaching powder, and other chemicals used in a hairdressing salon, compared with the office workers. Prevalence of symptoms during exposure to other types of generel pollutants was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Hairdressers are exposed to low levels of various irritating chemicals every day. The prevalences of acute symptoms related to the exposure of hairdressers to hairdressing chemicals are very high. Hairdressers, especially the oldest hairdressers, have more asthma-like symptoms than the control groups. (+info)
Incidence of asthma in female Swedish hairdressers.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk of asthma in hairdressers. METHODS: The incidence of asthma was retrospectively estimated in a Swedish nationwide study including all female hairdressers certified from vocational schools from 1970 to 1995, and a stratified sample of women from the general population were referents. A postal questionnaire included questions on respiratory tract symptoms, atopy, smoking, working periods as a hairdresser, and number of specific hair treatments performed/week. Reported exposures were validated by occupational hygienists. Rate ratios of incidence (IRRs) of asthma were estimated by Poisson regression, adjusted for calendar year of observation, hay fever, smoking, and region of domicile. RESULTS: The crude incidences of asthma/1000 person-years were: 3.9 during active years as a hairdresser, 2.8 among the hairdressers when not working in the profession, and 3.1 among the referents. The corresponding IRR for being an active hairdresser compared with the referents was 1.3 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.0 to 1.6). Moderate effects on risk of asthma were found both from hairdressing work (IRR=1.6 (1.1 to 2.2) among never-smokers) and from smoking (IRR=1.6 (1.2 to 2.2) among referents). However, the combined effect from hairdressing work and smoking (IRR=1.5 (1.0 to 2.1)) was less than expected (p=0.02). No effect modification by respiratory atopy was found. The hairdressers most often performing hair bleaching treatments (IRR=1.5 (0.7 to 3.0)) or using hair spray (IRR=1.4 (0.8 to 2.4)) had, compared with the most infrequent users, a slightly, but not significantly higher incidence of asthma. Exposure to persulphates in hair bleach was estimated to be 0.04-0.15 mg/m(3) during mixing of the powder. Reported average number of bleaching treatments agreed well with those performed according to a diary. CONCLUSIONS: Active hairdressing work was associated with a moderately increased incidence of asthma among lifelong non-smokers. The results are moderately supportive, but not conclusive, of associations between asthma and exposure to hair bleach or hair spray. (+info)