Differential behaviors toward ultraviolet A and B radiation of fibroblasts and keratinocytes from normal and DNA-repair-deficient patients.
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and trichothiodystrophy (TTD) are rare genodermatoses transmitted as recessive and autosomal traits that result in reduced capacity to repair UV-induced DNA lesions. Although XP, but not TTD, patients are prone to basal and squamous cell carcinomas, to date no comparative studies of the XP and TTD phenotypes have included epidermal keratinocytes. We compared the DNA repair capacity (by unscheduled DNA synthesis) and cell survival (by clonal analysis) of epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts grown from normal individuals and patients with xeroderma pigmentosum and trichothiodystrophy following UVA and UVB irradiation. The same dose of UVB (1000 J/m2) induced twice as many DNA lesions in normal fibroblasts as in normal keratinocytes. UV survival rates were always higher in keratinocytes than in fibroblasts. Normal and TTD keratinocytes survived better following UVA and UVB irradiation than XP-C and XP-D keratinocytes. XP-C keratinocytes exhibited exacerbated sensitivity toward UVA radiation. Unscheduled DNA synthesis at UV doses leading to 50% cell survival indicated that the ratio of DNA repair capacity to cell survival is higher in keratinocytes than in fibroblasts. In addition, UVA and UVB irradiation induced a transition from proliferative to abortive keratinocyte colonies. This transition varied between donors and was in part correlated with their cancer susceptibility. Altogether these data provide the first evidence of the differential behaviors of normal, XP, and TTD keratinocytes toward UV radiation. (+info)
The relative expression of mutated XPB genes results in xeroderma pigmentosum/Cockayne's syndrome or trichothiodystrophy cellular phenotypes.
The human XPB DNA helicase is a subunit of the DNA repair/basal transcription factor TFIIH, involved in early steps of the nucleotide excision repair pathway. Two distinct clinical phenotypes, xeroderma pigmentosum associated with Cockayne's syndrome (XP/CS) and trichothiodystrophy (TTD), can be due to mutations in the XPB gene. In the present work, we studied cellular DNA repair properties of skin fibro-blasts from two patients mutated in the XPB gene: an XP/CS patient cell (XPCS2BA) with a T296C (F99S) transition and a TTD patient cell (TTD6VI) exhibiting an A355C (T119P) transversion. Both cells are clearly associated with different levels of alterations in their response to UV light. To establish the relationship between the relative expression level of these two alleles and DNA repair properties, we transfected SV40-transformed XPCS2BA (XPCS2BASV) cells with a plasmid (pTTD6VI) carrying the XPB-A355C cDNA and examined DNA repair properties after UV irradiation (cell survival, unscheduled DNA synthesis and kinetics of photoproduct removal) in stable transfectants. We isolated three clones, which express the XPB-A355C gene (Cl-5) or the XPB-T296C gene (Cl-14) or both genes (Cl-19). This con-stitutes a model system allowing us to correlate the relative expression levels of the XPB-A355C (TTD) and XPB-T296C (XP/CS) genes with various DNA repair properties. Overexpression of the XPB-A355C (TTD) gene in an XP/CS cell gives rise to a cellular phenotype of increased repair similar to that of TTD6VI cells, while equal expression of the two mutated genes leads to an intermediate cellular phenotype between XP/CS and TTD. (+info)
Squamous cell carcinomas and increased apoptosis in skin with inhibited Rel/nuclear factor-kappaB signaling.
The Rel/nuclear factor-kappaB (Rel/NF-kappaB) transcription factors have been implicated previously in control of apoptosis, cell proliferation, and oncogenesis. Here we show that selective inhibition of Rel/NF-kappaB signaling in murine skin, by targeted overexpression of a super-repressor form of IkappaB-alpha, results in an increased basal frequency of apoptotic cells and the spontaneous development of squamous cell carcinomas. Presence of hyperplasia and hair follicle degeneration demonstrate an important role for Rel/NF-kappaB signaling in normal epidermal development and homeostasis. Transgenic skin, in addition, showed an enhanced sensitivity to UV-induced apoptosis. These data suggest an involvement of the Rel/NF-kappaB signaling pathway in apoptosis and cancer development of the skin. (+info)
Mouse model for the DNA repair/basal transcription disorder trichothiodystrophy reveals cancer predisposition.
Patients with the nucleotide excision repair (NER) disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) are highly predisposed to develop sunlight-induced skin cancer, in remarkable contrast to photosensitive NER-deficient trichothiodystrophy (TTD) patients carrying mutations in the same XPD gene. XPD encodes a helicase subunit of the dually functional DNA repair/basal transcription complex TFIIH. The pleiotropic disease phenotype is hypothesized to be, in part, derived from a repair defect causing UV sensitivity and, in part, from a subtle, viable basal transcription deficiency accounting for the cutaneous, developmental, and the typical brittle hair features of TTD. To understand the relationship between deficient NER and tumor susceptibility, we used a mouse model for TTD that mimics an XPD point mutation of a TTD patient in the mouse germline. Like the fibroblasts from the patient, mouse cells exhibit a partial NER defect, evident from the reduced UV-induced DNA repair synthesis (residual repair capacity approximately 25%), limited recovery of RNA synthesis after UV exposure, and a relatively mild hypersensitivity to cell killing by UV or 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. In accordance with the cellular studies, TTD mice exhibit a modestly increased sensitivity to UV-induced inflammation and hyperplasia of the skin. In striking contrast to the human syndrome, TTD mice manifest a dear susceptibility to UV- and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced skin carcinogenesis, albeit not as pronounced as the totally NER-deficient XPA mice. These findings open up the possibility that TTD is associated with a so far unnoticed cancer predisposition and support the notion that a NER deficiency enhances cancer susceptibility. These findings have important implications for the etiology of the human disorder and for the impact of NER on carcinogenesis. (+info)
Monilethrix: a novel mutation (Glu402Lys) in the helix termination motif and the first causative mutation (Asn114Asp) in the helix initiation motif of the type II hair keratin hHb6.
Monilethrix, a rare human hair disorder with autosomal dominant transmission, can be caused by mutations in hair keratins. Up to now, causative mutations have only been found in two type II cortex keratins, hHb6 and hHb1. In these hair keratins, the helix termination motif, HTM, was the only site in which mutations were located. The most frequent mutation, which has been found in 22 cases, was a Glu413Lys substitution in hHb6, whereas other mutations, i.e., hHb6 Glu413Asp, hHb1 Glu413Lys, and hHb1 Glu402Lys, have been reported in a distinctly lower number of cases. In this study, we describe the equivalent of the hHb1 Glu402Lys mutation in the HTM of cortex keratin hHb6. The mutation occurred in an American family in which it could only be detected in one clinically affected individual. Thus the underlying G-->A transition represents a spontaneous germ-line mutation in the hHb6 gene. This new mutation indicates that both the hHb6/hHb1 Glu413Lys substitution and the hHb6/hHb1 Glu402Lys substitution, represent mutational hotspots in the HTM of type II cortex keratins. However, we also describe a monilethrix-causing mutation in the helix initiation motif, HIM, of the cortex keratin hHb6. The critical Asn114Asp substitution was only found in affected members of a large Swedish three-generation family. Considering that since childhood, half of the affected individuals suffer from complete baldness and follicular keratosis, the new HIM mutation seems to be associated with a rather severe disease phenotype. In conclusion, our data strongly suggest that monilethrix is a disease of the hair cortex, whose etiology is interesting in that causative mutations seem to be restricted to type II hair keratins. (+info)
Identification of novel mutations in basic hair keratins hHb1 and hHb6 in monilethrix: implications for protein structure and clinical phenotype.
Monilethrix is an hereditary hair dystrophy recently shown to be due to mutations in the helix termination motif of two type II (basic) human hair keratin genes, hHb1 and hHb6. It has been suggested that mutation in hHb1 produces a less severe phenotype. We have studied hair keratin genes and clinical features in 18 unrelated pedigrees of monilethrix from Germany, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Portugal, in 13 of which mutations have not previously been identified. By examining the rod domains of hHb1, hHb3 and hHb6, we have identified mutations in nine of the new pedigrees. We again found the glutamine-lysine substitution (E413K) in the helix termination motif of hHb6 in two families, and in another, the corresponding E413K substitution in the hHb1 gene. In four families a similar substitution E402K was present in a nearby residue. In addition two novel mutations within the helix initiation motif of hHb6 were found in Scottish and Portuguese cases, in whom the same highly conserved asparagine residue N114 was mutated to histidine (N114H) or aspartic acid (N114D) residues, respectively. In four other monilethrix pedigrees mutations in these domains of hHb1, hHb3, and hHb6 were not found. The mutations identified predict a variety of possible structural consequences for the keratin molecule. A comparison of clinical features and severity between cases with hHb1 and hHb6 mutations does not suggest distinct effects on phenotype, with the possible exception of nail dystrophy, commoner with hHb1 defects. Other factors are required to explain the marked variation in clinical severity within and between cases. (+info)
The cancer-free phenotype in trichothiodystrophy is unrelated to its repair defect.
The DNA repair-deficient genetic disorders xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and trichothiodystrophy (TTD) can both result from mutations in the XPD gene, the sites of the mutations differing between the two disorders. The hallmarks of XP are multiple pigmentation changes in the skin and a greatly elevated frequency of skin cancers, characteristics that are not seen in TTD. XP-D and most TTD patients have reduced levels of DNA repair, but some recent reports have suggested that the repair deficiencies in TTD cells are milder than in XP-D cells. We reported recently that inhibition of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression by UVB irradiation was similar in normal and TTD cells but increased in XP-D cells, suggesting a correlation between ICAM-1 inhibition and cancer proneness. In the first part of the current work, we have extended these studies and found several other examples, including XP-G and Cockayne syndrome cells, in which increased ICAM-1 inhibition correlated with cancer proneness. However, we also discovered that a subset of TTD cells, in which arg112 in the NH2-terminal region of the XPD protein is mutated to histidine, had an ICAM-1 response similar to that of XP-D cells. In the second part of the work, we have shown that TTD cells with this specific NH2-terminal mutation are more sensitive to UV irradiation than other TTDs, most of which are mutated in the COOH-terminal region, and are indistinguishable from XP-D cells in cell killing, incision breaks, and repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. Because the clinical phenotypes of these patients do not obviously differ from those of TTDs with mutations at other sites, we conclude that the lack of skin abnormalities in TTD is independent of the defective cellular responses to UV. It is likely to result from a transcriptional defect, which prevents the skin abnormalities from being expressed. (+info)
Activation of the Notch pathway in the hair cortex leads to aberrant differentiation of the adjacent hair-shaft layers.
Little is known about the mechanisms underlying the generation of various cell types in the hair follicle. To investigate the role of the Notch pathway in this process, transgenic mice were generated in which an active form of Notch1 (Notch(DeltaE)) was overexpressed under the control of the mouse hair keratin A1 (MHKA1) promoter. MHKA-Notch(DeltaE) is expressed only in one precursor cell type of the hair follicle, the cortex. Transgenic mice could be easily identified by the phenotypes of curly whiskers and wavy, sheen pelage hair. No effects of activated Notch on proliferation were detected in hair follicles of the transgenic mice. We find that activating Notch signaling in the cortex caused abnormal differentiation of the medulla and the cuticle, two neighboring cell types that did not express activated Notch. We demonstrate that these non-autonomous effects are likely caused by cell-cell interactions between keratinocytes within the hair follicle and that Notch may function in such interactions either by directing the differentiation of follicular cells or assisting cells in interpreting a gradient emanating from the dermal papilla. (+info)