Core alpha1-->3-fucose is a common modification of N-glycans in parasitic helminths and constitutes an important epitope for IgE from Haemonchus contortus infected sheep.
Synthesis of parasite specific IgE plays a critical role in the defence against helminth infections. We report here that IgE from serum from Schistosoma mansoni infected mice and Haemonchus contortus infected sheep recognizes complex-type N-glycans from Arabidopsis thaliana, which contain R-GlcNAcbeta1-->4(Fucalpha1-->3)GlcNAcbeta1-Asn (core alpha1-->3-Fuc) and Xylbeta1-->2Manbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-R (core beta1-->2-Xyl) modifications, and honeybee phospholipase A2, which carries N-glycans that contain the core alpha1-->3-Fuc epitope. Evidence is presented that core alpha1-->3-fucosylated N-glycans bind a substantial part of the parasite specific IgE in serum of H. contortus infected sheep. These results suggest that the core alpha1-->3-Fuc antigen may contribute to induction of a Th2 response leading to the production of IgE. In addition we show here that N-glycans carrying core alpha1-->3-Fuc and beta1-->2-Xyl antigens are synthesized by many parasitic helminths and also by the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Since N-glycans containing the core alpha1-->3-Fuc have also been implicated in honeybee and plant induced allergies, this conserved glycan might represent an important common IgE epitope. (+info)
Induction of T helper 1- and T helper 2-type immune responses during Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep.
The production of cytokines by lymphoid cells, isolated from non-infected and Haemonchus contortus-infected lambs, was investigated. Particular attention was paid to differences in T helper 1- (Th1) and Th2-type immune profiles between genetically resistant and random-bred animal groups. Non-infected resistant and random-bred lambs produced equivalent levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-5 (IL-5), from isolated abomasal lymph node cells (ALN), mesenteric lymph node cells (MLN) and spleen cells (SC), in response to in vitro stimulation with T-cell mitogen (concanavalin A) or larval parasite antigen. ALN and MLN cells derived from infected resistant and random-bred lambs produced relatively lower levels of IFN-gamma, following in vitro stimulation with parasite antigen, when compared with their uninfected counterparts. In contrast, infected lambs of both groups showed enhanced mitogen- and antigen-stimulated production of IL-5, in comparison with uninfected controls, at days 5 and 28 postinfection (p.i.). Mitogen- and antigen-stimulated IL-5 responses were higher among resistant lambs compared with random-bred lambs, with the highest overall production of IL-5 by parasite antigen-stimulated ALN and MLN cells. Among day 28 p.i. lambs, levels of cell culture-derived parasite-specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgE antibodies were higher in resistant lambs than in random-bred lambs, following in vitro stimulation of SC or ALN cells with parasite antigen. Finally, after 28 days p.i., histological examination of abomasal tissue revealed higher densities of mast cells and eosinophils in the mucosa of resistant lambs than in random-bred lambs. Taken together, these data support the notion of a strong Th2-type immune response to Haemonchus infection in genetically resistant sheep, and support the claim for a Th1/Th2 dichotomy in ruminants. (+info)
Isolation and characterization of a novel inducible mammalian galectin.
A novel mammalian galectin cDNA (ovgal11) was isolated by representational difference analysis from sheep stomach (abomasal) tissue infected with the nematode parasite, Haemonchus contortus. The mRNA is greatly up-regulated in helminth larval infected gastrointestinal tissue subject to inflammation and eosinophil infiltration. Immunohistological analysis indicates that the protein is localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of upper epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract. The protein is also detected in mucus samples collected from infected abomasum but not from uninfected tissue. The restricted and inducible expression of ovgal11 mRNA and limited secretion of the protein support the hypothesis that OVGAL11 may be involved in gastrointestinal immune/inflammatory responses and possibly protection against infection. (+info)
Serodiagnosis of haemonchosis with a somatic antigen (Hc26) in several breeds of sheep.
Sera from 53 sheep belonging to Castellano, Churro, Manchego, and Merino breeds were analyzed to test the diagnostic value of a 26-kD antigen from adult Haemonchus contortus at prepatency and early and late patency of experimental haemonchosis. Animals that received zero, 1, or 2 infections with the parasite were tested. In addition, sera from 20 experimentally infected and 10 noninfected Texel sheep were used to test the antigen. Sera from 37 infected animals at prepatency as well as at patency in primary and secondary infection were found positive with the 26-kD antigen. However, sera from 10 animals with the lowest worm burdens (second infection) did not recognize the antigen during early patency (day 28 postinfection). IgG1 was the only isotype implicated in antigen recognition because IgG2, IgA, and IgM, in the same sera, showed no reactivity with the peptide. Antigen specificity was confirmed because hyperimmune sera against infective larvae and adult stages of the most common gastrointestinal nematodes found in natural infections in sheep (Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Teladorsagia circumcincta) did not recognize this peptide. The antigen was recognized only by anti-adult H. contortus hyperimmune sera and appeared to be absent in the L3 parasite stage. In addition, the partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of the diagnostic peptide is reported. (+info)
Cathepsin B-like cysteine protease genes (cbls) constitute large multigene families in parasitic and nonparasitic nematodes. Although expressed in the intestine of some nematodes, the biological and biochemical functions of the CBL proteins remain unresolved. Di- and tetra-oligopeptides were used as fluorogenic substrates and irreversible/competitive inhibitors to establish CBL functions in the intestine of the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. Cysteine protease activity was detected against diverse substrates including the cathepsin B/L substrate FR, the caspase 1 substrate YVAD, the cathepsin B substrate RR, but not the CED-3 (caspase 3) substrate DEVD. The pH at which maximum activity was detected varied according to substrate and ranged from pH 5.0 to 7.0. Individual CBLs were affinity isolated using FA and YVAD substrates. pH influenced CBL affinity isolation in a substrate-specific manner that paralleled pH effects on individual substrates. N-terminal sequencing identified two isolated CBLs as H. contortus GCP-7 (33 kDa) and AC-4 (37 kDa). N termini of each began at a position consistent with proregion cleavage and protease activation. Isolation of the GCP-7 band by each peptide was preferentially inhibited when competed with a diazomethane-conjugated inhibitor, Z-FA-CHN(2), demonstrating one functional difference among CBLs and among inhibitors. Substrate-based histological analysis placed CBLs on the intestinal microvilli. Data indicate that CBLs are responsible for cysteine protease activity described from H. contortus intestine. Results also support a role of CBLs in nutrient digestion. (+info)
In vitro activity of Brazilian strains of the predatory fungi Arthrobotrys spp. on free-living nematodes and infective larvae of Haemonchus placei.
In vitro tests were carried out to assess the activity of 26 Brazilian isolates of predatory fungi of the genus Arthrobotrys on a free-living nematode (Panagrellus sp.) and on infective larvae of Haemonchus placei, a parasitic gastrointestinal nematode of cattle. The results showed that the free-living nematode Panagrellus sp. was the most preyed upon, compared to H. placei, for all the fungal treatments. Also, variable predatory capacity was observed for different fungal isolates belonging to the same genus when applied to different nematode species. (+info)
An anthelmintic compound, nafuredin, shows selective inhibition of complex I in helminth mitochondria.
Infections with parasitic helminths are important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. New drugs that are parasite specific and minimally toxic to the host are needed to counter these infections effectively. Here we report the finding of a previously unidentified compound, nafuredin, from Aspergillus niger. Nafuredin inhibits NADH-fumarate reductase (complexes I + II) activity, a unique anaerobic electron transport system in helminth mitochondria, at nM order. It competes for the quinone-binding site in complex I and shows high selective toxicity to the helminth enzyme. Moreover, nafuredin exerts anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus in in vivo trials with sheep. Thus, our study indicates that mitochondrial complex I is a promising target for chemotherapy, and nafuredin is a potential lead compound as an anthelmintic isolated from microorganisms. (+info)
Pathological and immunohistochemical study of the abomasum and abomasal lymph nodes in goats experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus.
Histopathological changes and the distributions of T and B lymphocytes and IgG producing plasma cells were recorded in the abomasum and abomasal lymph nodes of goats 3, 7 and 21 weeks post-infection (wpi) after an experimental infection with H. contortus. The low rate of worm recovery by 3 wpi (5.6%) might have been due to larvae death as suggested by the presence of granulomas in the abomasal mucosa at 3 and 7 wpi, or simply due to a poor larval establishment. Marked increase in the secretion of mucus by mucous cells together with an abundant infiltration of eosinophils, mast cells, CD3+ T lymphocytes, CD79a+ B cells, IgG+ plasma cells and globule leukocytes were recorded in the abomasal mucosa, especially at 7 wpi. Except for the globule leukocytes, this reaction decreased substantially by week 21, suggesting this cell type may have been involved in rejection of adult nematodes. The abomasal lymph nodes showed marked hyperplasia, particularly of CD79a+ B cells and IgG+ plasma cells in all infected goats. These reactions may have been responsible for the reduction in the number of worms found in the abomasum between 3 and 7 wpi. (+info)