HIV prevalence in a gold mining camp in the Amazon region, Guyana.
The prevalence of HIV infection among men in a gold mining camp in the Amazon region of Guyana was 6.5%. This high percentage of HIV infection provides a reservoir for the virus in this region, warranting immediate public health intervention to curb its spread. As malaria is endemic in the Amazon Basin (>30,000 cases/year), the impact of coinfection may be substantial. (+info)
Short communication: concomitant malaria and filariasis infections in Georgetown, Guyana.
Lymphatic filariasis and malaria are endemic in Guyana, South America. To determine the prevalence of concomitant infections, we conducted a 1-year survey of febrile patients attending the malaria (day) and filariasis (night) clinics in Georgetown. In all, 1278 thick blood smears were collected: 769 for filariasis, of which 103 were positive for Wuchereria bancrofti, and three for both W. bancrofti and malaria parasites; and 509 for malaria, 21 of which tested positive for malaria and 17 for both malaria and filariasis. The age groups and sex of the infected persons with malaria and W. bancrofti are described. These results suggest that the incidence of concomitant infections in Guyana may be quite low but efforts should be made to reduce the disease burden in Georgetown, Guyana. (+info)
Efficacy of a targeted, oral penicillin-based yaws control program among children living in rural South America.
Yaws is endemic in rural Guyana. An observational study was conducted to determine the efficacy of oral penicillin V therapy in treating skin lesions of yaws in children. In 1999, inhabitants of 7 rural villages near Bartica, Guyana, were screened for skin lesions of yaws. Cases were confirmed by serological testing. A control program was implemented in 2000: children < or =14 years old were screened, and those with active lesions were treated with oral penicillin V for 7-10 days. In 2001, children were rescreened and active cases were treated. Prevalence of yaws skin lesions fell from 5.1% (52 of 1020 children screened in 2000) to 1.6% (8 of 516 in 2001), a 71% drop. Sixteen (94%) of 17 children treated in 2000 and reassessed in 2001 had complete resolution of lesions. A targeted, oral penicillin-based treatment regimen can successfully treat dermatologic yaws in individual children and can decrease the prevalence of skin yaws in a community in which it is endemic. This information may aid in the implementation of additional control efforts. (+info)
ECOLOGICAL CHANGE AS A FACTOR IN RENEWED MALARIA TRANSMISSION IN AN ERADICATED AREA. A LOCALIZED OUTBREAK OF A. AQUASALIS-TRANSMITTED MALARIA ON THE DEMERARA RIVER ESTUARY, BRITISH GUIANA, IN THE FIFTEENTH YEAR OF A. DARLINGI AND MALARIA ERADICATION.
In British Guiana, the successful eradication of Anopheles darlingi and malaria from the coastal areas has caused a very rapid increase in the population and has favoured a considerable social and economic improvement and expansion of both agriculture and industry. Housing and industrial developments and the constantly expanding rice cultivation have taken over most of the accessible pasture-lands, displacing the livestock which previously abounded around villages and settlements. Mechanization on the roads and in the fields increases daily, and the horse, the mule, the donkey and the ploughing oxen are gradually becoming obsolete.In some areas these changes have already caused such an upset in the balance between the human and the livestock population that A. aquasalis, a very abundant species all along the coast, but until recently entirely "fixed" by the livestock population, is now shifting its attention from livestock to man. On the Demerara river estuary, an area where malaria transmission was interrupted sixteen years ago and where eradication has been continually maintained, this mosquito has been responsible for a sharp, but localized, outbreak of P. vivax malaria. An entirely new epidemiological problem thus presents itself.Environmental changes, introduced and fostered by successful malaria eradication, may thus cause an anopheline species, potentially capable of malaria transmission, but originally inactive and harmless as a vector, to alter its feeding habits and thereby renew transmission. The immediate and long-term significance of some secondary and potential vectors may therefore require renewed evaluation in the planning of malaria eradication campaigns. (+info)
SEROLOGICAL RESPONSES OF MAN TO TYPHOID VACCINES.
Study of the serological responses in man to typhoid vaccines tested in several WHO-sponsored controlled field trials in British Guiana, Poland and Yugoslavia has not indicated any correlation between the level of Vi and O antibodies elicited and the effectiveness of the vaccines. Instead, the more effective vaccines have elicited significantly greater H-antibody responses; but a variety of factors suggests that it may in fact not be the antibody that confers immunity to the disease. The phagocytic test does not appear promising as a technique for determining the effectiveness of a typhoid vaccine, but passive protection of the chick-embryo may warrant further investigation. (+info)
High seroprevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 in blood donors in Guyana and molecular and phylogenetic analysis of new strains in the Guyana shelf (Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana).
The prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 in blood donors in Guyana has never been estimated. We evaluated the prevalence of these viruses in blood donors by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting and showed a prevalence of HTLV-1 of 1.3%; no HTLV-2 was detected. Female donors had a much higher HTLV-1 seroprevalence (3.6%) than male donors (0.7%). HTLV-1-seropositive donors tended to be slightly older than the average age for the total pool of donors. We also investigated the phylogenetic and molecular characteristics of HTLV-1 strains in Guyana and compared them with those identified in Suriname and French Guiana. Analysis of portions of the env and long terminal repeat nucleotide sequences showed that all the strains in Guyana and Suriname, like those in French Guiana, belonged to the transcontinental group of cosmopolitan subtype A. The similarities were greater between strains from Suriname and Guyana than between strains from Suriname and Guyana and those from French Guiana. Nevertheless, our results confirm that the HTLV-1 strains in all three countries have a common African origin. (+info)
Pfcrt and pfmdr1 alleles associated with chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum from Guyana, South America.
Using DNA extracted from 112 parasitised blood blots, we screened for the population marker of chloroquine resistance (CQR) pfcrt K76T in Plasmodium falciparum infections from Guyana. Pfmdr1 mutations S1034C, N1042D, and D1246Y also associated with CQR were surveyed as well in 15 isolates for which the in vitro responses to CQ were known. Results indicate that the pfcrt K76T is ubiquitous in this environment, and confirmatory sequencing of codons 72 and 76 revealed two novel allelic sequences SVMIT and RVMNT in addition to the previously identified CVMNT and SVMNT haplotypes. The frequency of the pfcrt K76T despite its presence in both CQR and CQS (chloroquine sensitive) infections measured in vivo and in vitro, suggests that it is a useful population marker in this low-transmission setting of sweeping CQR. (+info)
Blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Southern Guyana with keys for the identification of adults and pupae--a review.
A revision is made of the previously poorly studied blackfly fauna from the south-western border of Guyana with Brazil. Notes on the biosystematics of the species found are provided, together with keys and illustrations based on their morphology. Of the 14 species recorded, eight are anthropophilic and two of these (Simulium oyapockense s.l. and S. guianense s.l.) are proven vectors of human onchocerciasis in the nearby Amazonia focus of the disease in neighbouring Brazil. (+info)