Mucin secretion is modulated by luminal factors in the isolated vascularly perfused rat colon.
BACKGROUND: Mucins play an important protective role in the colonic mucosa. Luminal factors modulating colonic mucus release have been not fully identified. AIM: To determine the effect of some dietary compounds on mucus discharge in rat colon. METHODS: An isolated vascularly perfused rat colon model was used. Mucus secretion was induced by a variety of luminal factors administered as a bolus of 1 ml for 30 minutes in the colonic loop. Mucin release was evaluated using a sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay supported by histological analysis. RESULTS: The three dietary fibres tested in this study (pectin, gum arabic, and cellulose) did not provoke mucus secretion. Luminal administration of sodium alginate (an algal polysaccharide used as a food additive) or ulvan (a sulphated algal polymer) induced a dose dependent increase in mucin discharge over the concentration range 1-25 mg/l (p<0.05 for 25 mg/l alginate and p<0.05 for 10 and 25 mg/l ulvan). Glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid, which are major constituents of a variety of fibres, produced significant mucin secretion (p<0.05). Hydrogen sulphide and mercaptoacetate, two sulphides produced in the colonic lumen by microbial fermentation of sulphated polysaccharides, did not modify mucin secretion. Among the short chain fatty acids, acetate (5-100 mM) induced a dose dependent release of mucus (p<0.05 for 100 mM acetate). Interestingly, butyrate at a concentration of 5 mM produced colonic mucin secretion (p<0.05), but increasing its concentration to 100 mM provoked a gradual decrease in mucus discharge. Propionate (5-100 mM) did not induce mucin release. Several dietary phenolic compounds (quercetin, epicatechin, resveratrol) did not provoke mucus discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Two algal polysaccharides (alginate and ulvan), two uronic acids (glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid), and the short chain fatty acids acetate and butyrate induce mucin secretion in rat colon. Taken together, these data suggest that some food constituents and their fermentation products may regulate the secretory function of colonic goblet cells. (+info)
Interaction of gum arabic, maltodextrin and pullulan with lipids in emulsions.
The interaction of gum arabic, maltodextrin and pullulan with lipids in emulsion systems was investigated. Interfacial tension and interfacial viscosity measurements revealed that only gum arabic could adsorb and form a viscoelastic film at the oil-water interface. Good emulsifying activity was demonstrated for gum arabic, whereas fine emulsions could not be produced from the other polysaccharide solutions and oil. Frequency-dependent increases in the storage and loss moduli were observed for all the polysaccharide solutions. Such rheological behavior did not substantially change when maltodextrin and pullulan were mixed with oil to form emulsions. However, the frequency-dependence of the dynamic moduli disappeared in the gum arabic-stabilized emulsion, suggesting the formation of a network structure in which oil droplets could form junctions with gum arabic chains. The results on the inhibition of lipid oxidation by polysaccharides suggest that gum arabic protected lipids from the attack of lipoxygenase and free radicals by adsorbing at the oil droplet surface. (+info)
Oxidation of linoleic acid encapsulated with soluble soybean polysaccharide by spray-drying.
Linoleic acid was encapsulated with a soluble soybean polysaccharide, gum arabic, or a mixture of both together with maltodextrin, and the oxidation process of the encapsulated acid was measured at 37 degrees C and at a relative humidity of 12%. The soybean polysaccharide was more effective for encapsulating the acid and suppressing the oxidation of the encapsulated acid than gum arabic. A mixture of the soybean polysaccharide and maltodextrin was also effective for this purpose when the weight fraction of the polysaccharide was equal to or greater than 0.75. (+info)
Release characteristics of flavor from spray-dried powder in boiling water and during rice cooking.
The release characteristics of flavor in boiling water and the flavor retention in the rice after cooking were investigated by using spray dried powder in encapsulated in or emulsified with d-limonene or ethyl n-hexanoate in cyclodextrin and maltodextrin, or in gum arabic and maltodextrin. The behavior of flavor release into the boiling water was well simulated by Avrami's equation. The retention of d-limonene and ethyl n-hexanoate in cooked rice was correlated in each case with the flavor amount of spray-dried powder added. (+info)
Determination of fermentable carbohydrate from the upper gastrointestinal tract by using colectomized rats.
The primary aim of this study was to characterize the carbohydrate that would be supplied to the colon for fermentation under physiological conditions. Colectomized rats were fed fiber-free diets or diets containing 5% (wt/wt) gum arabic. Four (fucose, galactose, glucosamine, and galactosamine) of 11 analyzed sugars accounted for 77% of the total sugar in ileal excreta from colectomized rats fed fiber-free diets. The three sugars in gum arabic, rhamnose, arabinose, and galactose, accounted for 84% of the total sugars in gum arabic ileal excreta. Comparisons of the sugar compositions of the ileal excreta, the water-soluble fractions of the excreta, and three gel filtration fractions of the water-soluble material with those of the water-soluble fraction of rat mucosa, the acetone-soluble fraction of pancreas, and pancreatin suggested that the major source of endogenous carbohydrate is mucin. Gum arabic increased the daily excretion of the four mucin-derived sugars (fucose, galactose, glucosamine, and galactosamine) by the colectomized rats from 473 mumol per day to 634 mumol per day. We conclude that mucin is the major endogenous carbohydrate excreted from the upper gut and that gum arabic increases the amount of this endogenous carbohydrate. (+info)
Circadian rhythm of plasma uric acid and handling stress-induced hyperuricemia in conscious cebus monkeys.
An apparent circadian rhythm of plasma uric acid and the effect of handling stress on plasma uric acid level in conscious cebus monkeys were demonstrated. The lowest level of plasma uric acid in the circadian rhythm occurred early in the morning and the highest, before bedtime at night. With experimental handling stress, the plasma uric acid level rose to much more than the maximum level of the circadian rhythm. Stress-induced hyperuricemia could be inhibited without an increase of urinary uric acid excretion by the minor tranquilizer diazepam at doses of more than 1 mg/kg, p.o. On the other hand, benzbromarone at 20 mg/kg, p.o. significantly inhibited the hyperuricemia with a hyperuricosuric effect, while probenecid at 50 mg/kg, p.o. had no effect on either the increased plasma uric acid or urinary uric acid excretion. Accordingly, it is concluded that the plasma uric acid level in conscious cebus monkeys easily fluctuates with experimental conditions and that the animals can be utilized to evaluate the hypouricemic and hyperuricosuric property of benzbromarone-like agents. (+info)
Beta-lactoglobulin/polysaccharide interactions during in vitro gastric and pancreatic hydrolysis assessed in dialysis bags of different molecular weight cut-offs.
The effects of gum arabic, low methylated (LM) pectin or xylan at levels of 0 and 50 wt.% on beta-lactoglobulin (beta-lg) digestibility were studied as well as the interactions between the two macromolecules during in vitro hydrolysis. The proteolysis was performed in a system involving a two-step hydrolysis: either pepsin alone, or pepsin followed by a trypsin/chymotrypsin (T/C) mixture in dialysis bags with molecular weight cut-offs (MWCO) 1000 or 8000 Da. Digestibility was estimated by the N release and by a SDS-PAGE electrophoresis of retentates from the two dialysis bags after hydrolysis. Turbidimetric measurements monitored the structural evolution of mixtures during the two-step hydrolysis. Results showed that beta-lg was almost resistant to peptic digestion and that polysaccharides increased the N release despite a reduction of pepsin activity. This is due to the formation of electrostatic complexes between polysaccharides and beta-lg, which reduced beta-lg aggregation, increasing its solubility. The polysaccharides reduced significantly the beta-lg T/C digestibility as determined using a dialysis bag with a MWCO 1000 Da, without a modification of their enzymatic activities. No significant effect of polysaccharides on the beta-lg digestibility was detected using the dialysis bag with a MWCO 8000 Da. The electrophoresis pattern did not show differences in the profile of retentates in relation with the dialysis bag used. This suggests that non-specific interactions could occur during the second step of hydrolysis between polysaccharides and amino acids or peptides smaller than 8000 Da. (+info)
The acacia gum arabinogalactan fraction is a thin oblate ellipsoid: a new model based on small-angle neutron scattering and ab initio calculation.
Acacia gum is a branched complex polysaccharide whose main chain consists of 1,3-linked beta-D-galactopyranosyl units. Acacia gum is defined as a heteropolysaccharide since it contains approximately 2% of a polypeptide. The major molecular fraction (F1) accounting for approximately 88% of the total acacia gum mass is an arabinogalactan peptide with a weight-average molecular weight of 2.86 x 10(5) g/mol. The molecular structure of F1 is actually unknown. From small angle neutron scattering experiments in charge screening conditions, F1 appeared to be a dispersion of two-dimensional structures with a radius of gyration of approximately 6.5 nm and an inner dense branched structure. Inverse Fourier transform of F1 scattering form factor revealed a disk-like morphology with a diameter of approximately 20 nm and a thickness below 2 nm. Ab initio calculations on the pair distance distribution function produced a porous oblate ellipsoid particle with a central intricated "network". Both transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy confirm the thin disk model and structural dimensions. The model proposed is a breakthrough in the field of arabinogalactan-protein-type macromolecules. In particular, concerning the site of biosynthesis of these macromolecules, the structural dimensions found in this study would be in agreement with a phloem-mediated long-distance transport. In addition, the structure of F1 could also explain the low viscosity of acacia gum solutions, and its ability to self-assemble and to interact with proteins. (+info)