(1/1066) Specificity from steric restrictions in the guanosine binding pocket of a group I ribozyme.
The 3' splice site of group I introns is defined, in part, by base pairs between the intron core and residues just upstream of the splice site, referred to as P9.0. We have studied the specificity imparted by P9.0 using the well-characterized L-21 Scal ribozyme from Tetrahymena by adding residues to the 5' end of the guanosine (G) that functions as a nucleophile in the oligonucleotide cleavage reaction: CCCUCUA5 (S) + NNG <--> CCCUCU + NNGA5. UCG, predicted to form two base pairs in P9.0, reacts with a (kcat/KM) value approximately 10-fold greater than G, consistent with previous results. Altering the bases that form P9.0 in both the trinucleotide G analog and the ribozyme affects the specificity in the manner predicted for base-pairing. Strikingly, oligonucleotides incapable of forming P9.0 react approximately 10-fold more slowly than G, for which the mispaired residues are simply absent. The observed specificity is consistent with a model in which the P9.0 site is sterically restricted such that an energetic penalty, not present for G, must be overcome by G analogs with 5' extensions. Shortening S to include only one residue 3' of the cleavage site (CCCUCUA) eliminates this penalty and uniformly enhances the reactions of matched and mismatched oligonucleotides relative to guanosine. These results suggest that the 3' portion of S occupies the P9.0 site, sterically interfering with binding of G analogs with 5' extensions. Similar steric effects may more generally allow structured RNAs to avoid formation of incorrect contacts, thereby helping to avoid kinetic traps during folding and enhancing cooperative formation of the correct structure. (+info)
(2/1066) Comparative study of the anti-human cytomegalovirus activities and toxicities of a tetrahydrofuran phosphonate analogue of guanosine and cidofovir.
Cidofovir is the first nucleoside monophosphate analogue currently being used for the treatment of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) retinitis in individuals with AIDS. Unfortunately, the period of therapy with the use of this compound may be limited due to the possible emergence of serious irreversible nephrotoxic effects. New drugs with improved toxicity profiles are needed. The goal of this study was to investigate the anticytomegaloviral properties and drug-induced toxicity of a novel phosphonate analogue, namely, (-)-2-(R)-dihydroxyphosphinoyl-5-(S)-(guanin-9'-yl-methyl) tetrahydrofuran (compound 1), in comparison with those of cidofovir. The inhibitory activities of both compounds on HCMV propagation in vitro were similar against the AD 169 and Towne strains, with 50% inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 0.17 microgram/ml for cidofovir and < 0.05 to 0.09 microgram/ml for compound 1. A clinical HCMV isolate that was resistant to ganciclovir and that had a known mutation within the UL54 DNA polymerase gene and a cidofovir-resistant laboratory strain derived from strain AD 169 remained sensitive to compound 1, whereas their susceptibilities to ganciclovir and cidofovir were reduced by 33- and 10-fold, respectively. Both compound 1 and cidofovir exhibited equal potencies in an experimentally induced murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection in mice, with a prevention or prolongation of mean day to death at dosages of 1.0, 3.2, and 10.0 mg/kg of body weight/day. In cytotoxicity experiments, compound 1 was found to be generally more toxic than cidofovir in cell lines Hs68, HFF, and 3T3-L1 (which are permissive for HCMV or MCMV replication) but less toxic than cidofovir in MRC-5 cells (which are permissive for HCMV replication). Drug-induced toxic side effects were noticed for both compounds in rats and guinea pigs in a 5-day repeated-dose study. In guinea pigs, a greater weight loss was noticed with cidofovir than with compound 1 at dosages of 3.0 and 10.0 mg/kg/day. An opposite effect was detected in rats, which were treated with the compounds at relatively high dosages (up to 100 mg/kg/day). Compound 1 and cidofovir were nephrotoxic in both rats and guinea pigs, with the epithelium lining the proximal convoluted tubules in the renal cortex being the primary target site. The incidence and the severity of the lesions were found to be dose dependent. The lesions observed were characterized by cytoplasm degeneration and nuclear modifications such as karyomegaly, the presence of pseudoinclusions, apoptosis, and degenerative changes. In the guinea pig model, a greater incidence and severity of lesions were observed for cidofovir than for compound 1 (P < 0.001) with a drug regimen of 10 mg/kg/day. (+info)
(3/1066) Mycophenolate mofetil inhibits rat and human mesangial cell proliferation by guanosine depletion.
BACKGROUND: Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is used for immunosuppression after renal transplantation because it reduces lymphocyte proliferation by inhibiting inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) in lymphocytes and GTP biosynthesis. In the present study we asked if therapeutic concentrations of MMF might interfere with mesangial cell (MC) proliferation which is involved in inflammatory proliferative glomerular diseases. METHODS: Rat and human MCs were growth-arrested by withdrawal of fetal calf serum (FCS) and stimulated by addition of FCS, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) or lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Different concentrations of MMF (0.019-10 microM) were added concomitantly in the presence or absence of guanosine. MC proliferation was determined by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Apoptotic nuclei were stained using the Hoechst dye H33258. Cytosolic free Ca2+ concentrations were determined with the fluorescent calcium chelator fura-2-AM. RESULTS: MMF inhibited mitogen-induced rat MC proliferation with an IC50 of 0.45 +/- 0.13 microM. Human MCs proved to be even more sensitive (IC50 0.19 +/- 0.06 microM). Inhibition of MC proliferation was reversible and not accompanied by cellular necrosis or apoptosis. Addition of guanosine prevented the antiproliferative effect of MMF, indicating that inhibition of IMPDH is responsible for decreased MC proliferation. Early signalling events of GTP-binding-protein-coupled receptors, such as changes in intracellular Ca2+ levels were not affected by MMF. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that MMF has a concentration-dependent antiproliferative effect on cultured MCs in the therapeutic range, which might be a rationale for the use of this drug in the treatment of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis. (+info)
(4/1066) RNA oxidation is a prominent feature of vulnerable neurons in Alzheimer's disease.
In this study we used an in situ approach to identify the oxidized nucleosides 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8OHdG) and 8-hydroxyguanosine (8OHG), markers of oxidative damage to DNA and RNA, respectively, in cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The goal was to determine whether nuclear and mitochondrial DNA as well as RNA is damaged in AD. Immunoreactivity with monoclonal antibodies 1F7 or 15A3 recognizing both 8OHdG and 8OHG was prominent in the cytoplasm and to a lesser extent in the nucleolus and nuclear envelope in neurons within the hippocampus, subiculum, and entorhinal cortex as well as frontal, temporal, and occipital neocortex in cases of AD, whereas similar structures were immunolabeled only faintly in controls. Relative density measurement showed that there was a significant increase (p < 0.0001) in 8OHdG and 8OHG immunoreactivity with 1F7 in cases of AD (n = 22) as compared with senile (n = 13), presenile (n = 10), or young controls (n = 4). Surprisingly, the oxidized nucleoside was associated predominantly with RNA because immunoreaction was diminished greatly by preincubation in RNase but only slightly by DNase. This is the first evidence of increased RNA oxidation restricted to vulnerable neurons in AD. The subcellular localization of damaged RNA showing cytoplasmic predominance is consistent with the hypothesis that mitochondria may be a major source of reactive oxygen species that cause oxidative damage in AD. (+info)
(5/1066) Hprt mutant frequency and molecular analysis of Hprt mutations in Fischer 344 rats treated with thiotepa.
Thiotepa is a bifunctional alkylating anticancer drug that is a rodent carcinogen and a suspected human carcinogen. In order to determine the sensitivity of mutant induction in the Hprt lymphocyte assay for detecting tumorigenic doses of thiotepa, Fischer 344 rats were treated for 4 weeks with thiotepa using a procedure adapted from a carcinogenesis protocol. At various times after beginning the treatment regimen, rats were killed and the lymphocyte Hprt assay was performed on splenic lymphocytes isolated from the animals. The 6-thioguanine-resistant T lymphocyte mutant frequency increased with time during the period of thiotepa exposure and declined slightly thereafter. Significant dose-dependent increases in mutant frequency were found using concentrations of thiotepa that eventually result in lymphoproliferative tumors. Hprt mRNA from mutant lymphocytes was reverse transcribed to cDNA, amplified by PCR and examined for mutations by DNA sequencing. This analysis indicated that the major type of point mutation was G:C-->T:A transversion and that 33% of the mutants contained simple or complex frameshifts. Also, a multiplex PCR performed on DNA from mutant clones that were expanded in vitro indicated that 34% of the clones had deletions in the Hprt gene. These results indicate that the induction of lymphocyte Hprt mutants is a sensitive biomarker for the carcinogenicity of thiotepa and that the types of mutations found in the lymphocyte Hprt gene reflect the kinds of DNA damage produced by thiotepa. (+info)
(6/1066) Induction of reversible complexes between eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase I and DNA-containing oxidative base damages. 7, 8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine and 5-hydroxycytosine.
We recently showed that abasic sites, uracil mismatches, nicks, and gaps can trap DNA topoisomerase I (top1) when these lesions are introduced in the vicinity of a top1 cleavage site (Pourquier, P., Ueng, L.-M., Kohlhagen, G., Mazumder, A., Gupta, M., Kohn, K. W., and Pommier, Y. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 7792-7796; Pourquier, P., Pilon, A. A., Kohlhagen, G., Mazumder, A., Sharma, A., and Pommier, Y. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 26441-26447). In this study, we investigated the effects on top1 of an abundant base damage generated by various oxidative stresses: 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG). Using purified eukaryotic top1 and oligonucleotides containing the 8-oxoG modification, we found a 3-7-fold increase in top1-mediated DNA cleavage when 8-oxoG was present at the +1 or +2 position relative to the cleavage site. Another oxidative lesion, 5-hydroxycytosine, also enhanced top1 cleavage by 2-fold when incorporated at the +1 position of the scissile strand. 8-oxoG at the +1 position enhanced noncovalent top1 DNA binding and had no detectable effect on DNA religation or on the incision step. top1 trapping by 8-oxoG was markedly enhanced when asparagine adjacent to the catalytic tyrosine was mutated to histidine, suggesting a direct interaction between this residue and the DNA major groove immediately downstream from the top1 cleavage site. Altogether, these results demonstrate that oxidative base lesions can increase top1 binding to DNA and induce top1 cleavage complexes. (+info)
(7/1066) Structural alterations of the tRNA(m1G37)methyltransferase from Salmonella typhimurium affect tRNA substrate specificity.
In Salmonella typhimurium, the tRNA(m1G37)methyltransferase (the product of the trmD gene) catalyzes the formation of m1G37, which is present adjacent and 3' of the anticodon (position 37) in seven tRNA species, two of which are tRNA(Pro)CGG and tRN(Pro)GGG. These two tRNA species also exist as +1 frameshift suppressor sufA6 and sufB2, respectively, both having an extra G in the anticodon loop next to and 3' of m1G37. The wild-type form of the tRNA(m1G37)methyltransferase efficiently methylates these mutant tRNAs. We have characterized one class of mutant forms of the tRNA(m1G37)methyltransferase that does not methylate the sufA6 tRNA and thereby induce extensive frameshifting resulting in a nonviable cell. Accordingly, pseudorevertants of strains containing such a mutated trmD allele in conjunction with the sufA6 allele had reduced frameshifting activity caused by either a 9-nt duplication in the sufA6tRNA or a deletion of its structural gene, or by an increased level of m1G37 in the sufA6tRNA. However, the sufB2 tRNA as well as the wild-type counterparts of these two tRNAs are efficiently methylated by this class of structural altered tRNA(m1G37)methyltransferase. Two other mutations (trmD3, trmD10) were found to reduce the methylation of all potential tRNA substrates and therefore primarily affect the catalytic activity of the enzyme. We conclude that all mutations except two (trmD3 and trmD10) do not primarily affect the catalytic activity, but rather the substrate specificity of the tRNA, because, unlike the wild-type form of the enzyme, they recognize and methylate the wild-type but not an altered form of a tRNA. Moreover, we show that the TrmD peptide is present in catalytic excess in the cell. (+info)
(8/1066) Crystal structure of a double-stranded DNA containing a cisplatin interstrand cross-link at 1.63 A resolution: hydration at the platinated site.
cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin) is a powerful anti-tumor drug whose target is cellular DNA. In the reaction between DNA and cisplatin, covalent intrastrand and interstrand cross-links (ICL) are formed. Two solution structures of the ICL have been published recently. In both models the double-helix is bent and unwound but with significantly different angle values. We solved the crystal structure at 100K of a double-stranded DNA decamer containing a single cisplatin ICL, using the anomalous scattering (MAD) of platinum as a unique source of phase information. We found 47 degrees for double-helix bending and 70 degrees for unwinding in agreement with previous electrophoretic assays. The crystals are stabilized by intermolecular contacts involving two cytosines extruded from the double-helix, one of which makes a triplet with a terminal G.C pair. The platinum coordination is nearly square and the platinum residue is embedded into a cage of nine water molecules linked to the cross-linked guanines, to the two amine groups, and to the phosphodiester backbone through other water molecules. This water molecule organization is discussed in relation with the chemical stability of the ICL. (+info)