Inhibition of cellular growth by increased guanine nucleotide pools. Characterization of an Escherichia coli mutant with a guanosine kinase that is insensitive to feedback inhibition by GTP.
In Escherichia coli the enzyme guanosine kinase phosphorylates guanosine to GMP, which is further phosphorylated to GDP and GTP by other enzymes. Here I report that guanosine kinase is subject to efficient feedback inhibition by the end product of the pathway, GTP, and that this regulation is abolished by a previously described mutation, gsk-3, in the structural gene for guanosine kinase (Hove-Jensen, B., and Nygaard, P. (1989) J. Gen. Microbiol. 135, 1263-1273). Consequently, the gsk-3 mutant strain was extremely sensitive to guanosine, which caused the guanine nucleotide pools to increase dramatically, thereby initiating a cascade of metabolic changes that eventually led to growth arrest. By isolation and characterization of guanosine-resistant derivatives of the gsk-3 mutant, some of the crucial steps in this deleterious cascade of events were found to include the following: first, conversion of GMP to adenine nucleotides via GMP reductase, encoded by the guaC gene; second, inhibition of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase by an adenine nucleotide, presumably ADP, causing starvation for histidine, tryptophan, and pyrimidines, all of which require PRPP for their synthesis; third, accumulation of the regulatory nucleotide guanosine 5',3'-bispyrophosphate (ppGpp), a general transcriptional inhibitor synthesized by the relA gene product in response to amino acid starvation. (+info)
Elevated expression of the CD4 receptor and cell cycle arrest are induced in Jurkat cells by treatment with the novel cyclic dinucleotide 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid.
The effect of the novel, naturally occurring nucleotide cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) on the lymphoblastoid CD4+ Jurkat cell line was studied. When exposed to 50 microM c-di-GMP, Jurkat cells exhibited a markedly elevated expression of the CD4 receptor of up to 6.3-fold over controls. C-di-GMP also causes blockage of the cell cycle at the S-phase, characterized by increased cellular thymidine uptake, reduction in G2/M-phase cells, increase in S-phase cells and decreased cell division. Additionally c-di-GMP naturally enters these cells and binds irreversibly to the P21ras protein. The effects described appear to be unique for c-di-GMP. (+info)
Metabolism of methionine and biosynthesis of caffeine in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.).
1. Caffeine biosynthesis was studied by following the incorporation of 14C into the products of L-[Me-14C]methionine metabolism in tea shoot tips. 2. After administration of a 'pulse' of L-[Me-14C]methionine, almost all of the L-[Me-14C]methionine supplied disappeared within 1 h, and 14C-labelled caffeine synthesis increased throughout the experimental periods, whereas the radioactivities of an unknown compound and theobromine were highest at 3 h after the uptake of L-[Me-14C]methionine, followed by a steady decrease. There was also slight incorporation of the label into 7-methylxanthine, serine, glutamate and aspartate, disappearing by 36 h after the absorption of L-[Me-14C]methionine. 3. The radioactivities of nucleic acids derived from L-[Me-14C]methionine increased rapidly during the first 12 h incubation period and then decreased steadily. Sedimentation analysis of nucleic acids by sucrose-gradient centrifugation showed that methylation of nucleic acids in tea shoot tips occurred mainly in the tRNA fraction. The main product among the methylated bases in tea shoot tips was identified as 1-methyladenine. 4. The results indicated that the purine ring in caffeine is derived from the purine nucleotides in the nucleotide pool rather than in nucleic acids. A metabolic scheme to show the production of caffeine and related methylxanthines from the nucleotides in tea plants is discussed. (+info)
Endothelin (ET) receptors activate heterotrimeric G proteins that are members of the Gi, Gq, and Gs families but may also activate members of other families such as Galpha12/13. Galpha13 has multiple complex cellular effects that are similar to those of ET. We studied the ability of ET receptors to activate Galpha13 using an assay for G protein alpha-chain activation that is based on the fact that an activated (GTP-bound) alpha-chain is resistant to trypsinization compared with an inactive (GDP-bound) alpha-chain. Nonhydrolyzable guanine nucleotides and AlMgF protected Galpha13 from degradation by trypsin. In membranes from human embryonic kidney 293 cells that coexpress ETB receptors and alpha13, ET-3 and 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate [Gpp(NH)p] increased the protection of alpha13 compared with Gpp(NH)p alone. The specificity of ETB receptor-alpha13 coupling was documented by showing that beta2 receptors and isoproterenol or ETA receptors and ET-1 did not activate alpha13 and that a specific antagonist for ETB receptors blocked ET-3-dependent activation of alpha13. (+info)
Structural elements of ADP-ribosylation factor 1 required for functional interaction with cytohesin-1.
ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) is a 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding protein involved in vesicular trafficking. Conversion of inactive ARF-GDP to active ARF-GTP is catalyzed by guanine nucleotide exchange proteins such as cytohesin-1. Cytohesin-1 and its Sec7 domain (C-1Sec7) exhibit guanine nucleotide exchange protein activity with ARF1 but not ARF-like protein 1 (ARL1), which is 57% identical in amino acid sequence. With chimeric proteins composed of ARF1 (F) and ARL1 (L) sequences we identified three structural elements responsible for this specificity. Cytohesin-1 increased [35S]guanosine 5'-(gamma-thio)triphosphate binding to L28/F (first 28 residues of L, remainder F) and to a much lesser extent F139/L, and mut13F139/L (F139/L with random sequence in the first 13 positions) but not Delta13ARF1 that lacks the first 13 amino acids; therefore, a nonspecific ARF N terminus was required for cytohesin-1 action. The N terminus was not, however, required for that of C-1Sec7. Both C-1Sec7 and cytohesin-1 effectively released guanosine 5'-(gamma-thio)triphosphate from ARF1, but only C-1Sec7 displaced the nonhydrolyzable GTP analog bound to mut13F139/L, again indicating that structure in addition to the Sec7 domain is involved in cytohesin-1 interaction. Some element(s) of the C-terminal region is also involved, because replacement of the last 42 amino acids with ARL sequence in F139L decreased markedly the interaction with cytohesin-1. Participation of both termini is consistent with the crystallographic structure of ARF in which the two terminal alpha-helices are in close proximity. ARF1 residues 28-50 are also important in the interaction with cytohesin-1; replacement of Lys-38 with Gln, the corresponding residue in ARL1, abolished the ability to serve as substrate for cytohesin-1 or C-1Sec7. These studies have defined multiple structural elements in ARF1, including switch 1 and the N and C termini, that participate in functional interactions with cytohesin-1 (or its catalytic domain C-1Sec7), which were not apparent from crystallographic analysis. (+info)
Cysteine carboxyl O-methylation of human placental 23 kDa protein.
C-Terminal carboxyl methylation of a human placental 23 kDa protein catalyzed by membrane-associated methyltransferase has been investigated. The 23 kDa protein substrate methylated was partially purified by DEAE-Sephacel, hydroxyapatite and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatographies. The substrate protein was eluted on Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography as a protein of about 29 kDa. In the absence of Mg2+, the methylation was stimulated by guanine nucleotides (GTP, GDP and GTPgammaS), but in the presence of Mg2+, only GTPgammaS stimulated the methylation which was similar to the effect on the G25K/rhoGDI complex. AFC, an inhibitor of C-terminal carboxyl methylation, inhibited the methylation of human placental 23 kDa protein. These results suggests that the substrate is a small G protein different from the G25K and is methylated on C-terminal isoprenylated cysteine residue. This was also confirmed by vapor phase analysis. The methylated substrate protein was redistributed to membrane after in vitro methylation, suggesting that the methylation of this protein is important for the redistribution of the 23 kDa small G protein for its putative role in intracellular signaling. (+info)
The A26G replacement in the consensus sequence A-X-X-X-X-G-K-[T,S] of the guanine nucleotide binding site activates the intrinsic GTPase of the elongation factor 2 from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus.
A recombinant form of the elongation factor 2 from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus (SsEF-2), carrying the A26G substitution, has been produced and characterized. The amino acid replacement converted the guanine nucleotide binding consensus sequences A-X-X-X-X-G-K-[T,S] of the elongation factors EF-G or EF-2 into the corresponding G-X-X-X-X-G-K-[T,S] motif which is present in all the other GTP-binding proteins. The rate of poly(U)-directed poly(Phe) synthesis and the ribosome-dependent GTPase activity of A26GSsEF-2 were decreased compared to SsEF-2, thus indicating that the A26G replacement partially affected the function of SsEF-2 during translocation. In contrast, the A26G substitution enhanced the catalytic efficiency of the intrinsic SsEF-2 GTPase triggered by ethylene glycol [Raimo, G., Masullo, M., Scarano, G., & Bocchini, V. (1997) Biochimie 78, 832-837]. Surprisingly, A26GSsEF-2 was able to hydrolyse GTP even in the absence of ethylene glycol; furthermore, the alcohol increased the affinity for GTP without modifying the catalytic constant of A26GSsEF-2 GTPase. Compared to SsEF-2, the affinity of A26GSsEF-2 for [3H]GDP was significantly reduced. These findings suggest that A26 is a regulator of the biochemical functions of SsEF-2. The involvement of this alanine residue in the guanine nucleotide-binding pocket of EF-2 or EF-G is discussed. (+info)
Characteristics of sequences around individual nucleotide substitutions in IgVH genes suggest different GC and AT mutators.
Somatic hypermutation affects Ig genes during T-dependent B cell responses and is characterized by a high frequency of single base substitutions. Hypermutation is not a completely random process; a study of mutations in different systems has revealed the presence of sequence motifs that target mutation. In a recent analysis of the sequences surrounding individual mutated bases in out-of-frame human IgVH genes, we found that the target motifs around mutated G's and C's are reverse complements of each other. This finding suggests that hypermutation acts on both strands of DNA, which contradicts evidence of a strand-dependent mechanism as suggested by an observed bias in A and T mutations and the involvement of transcriptional machinery. We have now extended our database of out-of-frame genes and determined the sequence motifs flanking mutated A and T nucleotides. In addition, we have analyzed the flanking sequences for different types of nucleotide substitutions separately. Our results confirm the relationship between the motifs for G and C mutations and show that the motifs surrounding mutated A's and T's are weaker and do not have the same relationship. Taken together with our observation of A/T strand bias in out-of-frame genes, this observation suggests that there is a semitargeted G/C mutator that is strand-independent and a separate A/T mutator that is strand-dependent and is less reliant on the local target sequence. (+info)