Combination of continuous intravenous infusion using a mixture of guaifenesin-ketamine-medetomidine and sevoflurane anesthesia in horses.
The anesthetic and cardiovascular effects of a combination of continuous intravenous infusion using a mixture of 100 g/L guaifenesin-4 g/L ketamine-5 mg/L medetomidine (0.25 ml/kg/hr) and oxygen-sevoflurane (OS) anesthesia (GKM-OS anesthesia) in horses were evaluated. The right carotid artery of each of 12 horses was raised surgically into a subcutaneous position under GKM-OS anesthesia (n=6) or OS anesthesia (n=6). The end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane (EtSEV) required to maintain surgical anesthesia was around 1.5% in GKM-OS and 3.0% in OS anesthesia. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was maintained at around 80 mmHg under GKM-OS anesthesia, while infusion of dobutamine (0.39+/-0.10 microg/kg/min) was necessary to maintain MABP at 60 mmHg under OS anesthesia. The horses were able to stand at 36+/-26 min after cessation of GKM-OS anesthesia and at 48+/-19 minutes after OS anesthesia. The cardiovascular effects were evaluated in 12 horses anesthetized with GKM-OS anesthesia using 1.5% of EtSEV (n=6) or OS anesthesia using 3.0% of EtSEV (n=6). During GKM-OS anesthesia, cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance was maintained at about 70% of the baseline value before anesthesia, and MABP was maintained over 70 mmHg. During OS anesthesia, infusion of dobutamine (0.59+/-0.24 microg/kg/min) was necessary to maintain MABP at 70 mmHg. Infusion of dobutamine enabled to maintaine cardiac output at about 80% of the baseline value; however, it induced the development of severe tachycardia in a horse anesthetized with sevoflurane. GKM-OS anesthesia may be useful for prolonged equine surgery because of its minimal cardiovascular effect and good recovery. (+info)
Anesthesia of bulls undergoing surgical manipulation of the vas deferentia.
Twelve bulls ranging from 341 to 545 kilograms in body mass were successfully anesthetized for either vasectomy or prosthetic vas deferens implantation with a combination of thiopental sodium, glyceryl guaiacolate, nitrous oxide, halothane and oxygen. Duration of anesthetic administration was 119.2 plus or minus 24.2 (S.D.) minutes. Righting reflexes returned 15.0 plus or minus 8.0 minutes after cessation of anesthetic administration and the bulls were capable of standing within 46.6 plus or minus 17.8 minutes. Interpretations of pulse rate, respiratory rate and eye reflexes were related to anesthetic depth and maintenance. A control mean respiratory frequency of 28.8 plus or minus 3.6 per minute compared to minimum and maximum frequencies of 26.8 plus or minus 5.1 and 37.6 plus or minus 6.3, respectively, during anesthetic maintenance. A control mean pulse frequency of 91.6 plus or minus 15.9 per minute compared to minimum and maximum frequencies of 84.8 plus or minus 13 and 102.3 plus or minus 13.4, respectively, during maintenance of anesthesia. Methods for avoiding complications related to anesthetic induction, maintenance and emergence were described. Specific pharmacological aspects of atropine, halothane and nitrous oxide were emphasized in light of their application to ruminant anesthesia. (+info)
Detection and characterization of a novel extracellular fungal enzyme that catalyzes the specific and hydrolytic cleavage of lignin guaiacylglycerol beta-aryl ether linkages.
Cleavage of the arylglycerol beta-aryl ether linkage is the most important process in the biological degradation of lignin. The bacterial beta-etherase was described previously and shown to be tightly associated with the cellular membrane. In this study, we aimed to detect and isolate a new extracellular function that catalyses the beta-aryl ether linkage cleavage of high-molecular lignin in the soil fungi. We screened and isolated 2BW-1 cells by using a highly sensitive fluorescence assay system. The beta-aryl ether cleavage enzyme was produced by a newly isolated fungus, 2BW-1, and is secreted into the extracellular fraction. The beta-aryl ether cleavage enzyme converts the guaiacylglycerol beta-O-guaiacyl ether (GOG) to guaiacylglycerol and guaiacol. It requires the C alpha alcohol structure and p-hydroxyl group and specifically attacks the beta-aryl ether linkage of high-molecular mass lignins with addition of two water molecules at the C alpha and C beta positions. (+info)
Guaifenesin as a treatment for primary dysmenorrhea.
BACKGROUND: Dysmenorrhea is highly prevalent and causes much work loss and discomfort. A treatment with a new mechanism of action could benefit women of menstruating age. A study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of guaifenesin as a treatment for primary dysmenorrhea because of its effects of cervical dilation and cervical mucous thinning. METHODS: Thirty-four subjects with primary dysmenorrhea were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Three treatment surveys measured 10 symptoms (lower abdominal pain, general abdominal pain, back pain, headache, nausea, diarrhea, constipation, menstrual flow, weakness, and activities of daily living) on a 100-mm visual analog scale. Nonstudy analgesic use was also measured. RESULTS: Twenty-five subjects returned the first treatment survey, and 17 returned all 3 surveys. Results were nonsignificant, but guaifenesin trended toward being better than placebo for dysmenorrhea pain and associated constitutional symptoms and caused no worsening of symptoms. Lower abdominal mean pain scores from the first survey decreased 38 mm for guaifenesin versus 7 mm for placebo. By the third survey, only 2 of 8 guaifenesin participants took nonstudy analgesics compared with all 9 placebo subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Guaifenesin may be useful in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. A larger study is needed to validate these initial findings. (+info)
Gender differences in psychogenic non-epileptic seizures.
PURPOSE: To determine whether male and female populations of patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are similar, in terms of demographic and social factors, aetiological factors, the clinical characteristics of events and path to diagnosis. METHODS: Prospective study by semi-structured interview of 160 consecutive patients (117 female and 43 male) with video EEG confirmed diagnosis of PNES + epileptic seizures (ES). RESULTS: Most parameters showed no significant differences. Males were, however, more likely to be unemployed (P = 0.028), and females were six times more likely to self-harm (P = 0.050), though the numbers were small in these categories. Men were more likely to attribute their PNES to a predisposing factor for epilepsy (P = 0.001), and women were over eight times more likely to report sexual abuse (P = 0.001). Event semiology was similar, but women were more likely to weep after events (P = 0.017). The carers and family of men with PNES were three times less likely to accept the diagnosis of PNES (P = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Our samples showed few significant gender differences, suggesting that other male and female populations of patients with PNES are likely to be similar also. Some of the differences we found may give insight into causation of PNES. (+info)
Enantiomer separation of the four diastereomers of guaiacyl glycerol from Hydnocarpus annamensis by capillary electrophoresis with HP-beta-CD as a chiral selector.
A capillary electrophoresis method with HP-beta-CD as the chiral selector is established for the enantioseparation of two pairs of phenylpropanoids, which are isolated from Hydnocarpus annamensis. The effects of buffer pH, HP-beta-CD and buffer concentration, applied voltage, and cartridge temperature on the enantioseparation are optimized. A baseline separation of the four diastereomers of guaiacyl glycerol is achieved in less than 10 min under these optimized conditions: 25 mmol/L Borax-NaOH buffer (pH 10.01) in the presence of 30 mmol/L HP-beta-CD at 15 degrees C and 30 kV. The experimental results show that the reported method by capillary electrophoresis for the separation of the four diastereomers of guaiacyl glycerol is powerful, sensitive, and fast, requires smaller amounts of reagents, and can be employed as a reliable alternative to other methods. (+info)
Inhibition of cough-reflex sensitivity by benzonatate and guaifenesin in acute viral cough.
Clinical efficacy of farcosolvin syrup (ambroxol-theophylline-guaiphenesin mixture) in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis.
BACKGROUND: Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB) are defined as recurrent attacks of worsening bronchial inflammation that are marked by an increase in the volume of daily sputum produced, a change in color of the expectorated sputum, and worsening dyspnea. Farcosolvin (Pharco Pharmaceuticals, Alexandria, Egypt) is a mixture of ambroxol (15 mg); theophylline (50 mg); and guaiphenesin (30 mg), per 5 mL syrup. OBJECTIVE: To test the clinical efficacy of Farcosolvin in the treatment of AECB in a randomized, single-blinded, controlled study design. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred patients with AECB were randomized to either Farcosolvin or guaiphenesin treatment groups, in addition to the standard medical treatment for their cases. Baseline clinical symptomatolgy of breathlessness, cough, and sputum severity scoring were compared before and after 3 and 7 days of treatment in both groups and the differences compared between groups. Changes in perceived improvement were also compared between groups using the Clinical Global Impression of Improvement or Change Scale (CGIC). RESULTS: There were statistically significant improvements in breathlessness and cough scores in both groups (pretreatment versus posttreatment at day 3 and at day 7; P < 0.05). There were highly statistically significant differences between groups in improvement in breathlessness and cough scores, after 3 and 7 days treatment, in favor of the Farcosolvin treatment group (P < 0.001). Out of 50 patients, 48 (96%) in the Farcosolvin-treated group rated their improvement on the CGIC scale as "much" and "very much" improved, while only 41 patients (82%) reported such a degree of improvement in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: We concluded from our study that Farcosolvin syrup might be safe and effective in improving symptoms in cases of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. (+info)