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(1/48) Heterozygous mutations in BBS1, BBS2 and BBS6 have a potential epistatic effect on Bardet-Biedl patients with two mutations at a second BBS locus.

Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a pleiotropic genetic disorder with substantial inter- and intrafamilial variability, that also exhibits remarkable genetic heterogeneity, with seven mapped BBS loci in the human genome. Recent data have demonstrated that BBS may be inherited either as a simple Mendelian recessive or as an oligogenic trait, since mutations at two loci are sometimes required for pathogenesis. This observation suggests that genetic interactions between the different BBS loci may modulate the phenotype, thus contributing to the clinical variability of BBS. We present three families with two mutations in either BBS1 or BBS2, in which some but not all patients carry a third mutation in BBS1, BBS2 or the putative chaperonin BBS6. In each example, the presence of three mutant alleles correlates with a more severe phenotype. For one of the missense alleles, we also demonstrate that the introduction of the mutation in mammalian cells causes a dramatic mislocalization of the protein compared with the wild-type. These data suggest that triallelic mutations are not always necessary for disease manifestation, but might potentiate a phenotype that is caused by two recessive mutations at an independent locus, thus introducing an additional layer of complexity on the genetic modeling of oligogenicity.  (+info)

(2/48) Intracellular localization of a group II chaperonin indicates a membrane-related function.

Chaperonins are protein complexes that are believed to function as part of a protein folding system in the cytoplasm of the cell. We observed, however, that the group II chaperonins known as rosettasomes in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae, are not cytoplasmic but membrane associated. This association was observed in cultures grown at 60 degrees C and 76 degrees C or heat-shocked at 85 degrees C by using immunofluorescence microscopy and in thick sections of rapidly frozen cells grown at 76 degrees C by using immunogold electron microscopy. We observed that increased abundance of rosettasomes after heat shock correlated with decreased membrane permeability at lethal temperature (92 degrees C). This change in permeability was not seen in cells heat-shocked in the presence of the amino acid analogue azetidine 2-carboxylic acid, indicating functional protein synthesis influences permeability. Azetidine experiments also indicated that observed heat-induced changes in lipid composition in S. shibatae could not account for changes in membrane permeability. Rosettasomes purified from cultures grown at 60 degrees C and 76 degrees C or heat-shocked at 85 degrees C bind to liposomes made from either the bipolar tetraether lipids of Sulfolobus or a variety of artificial lipid mixtures. The presence of rosettasomes did not significantly change the transition temperature of liposomes, as indicated by differential scanning calorimetry, or the proton permeability of liposomes, as indicated by pyranine fluorescence. We propose that these group II chaperonins function as a structural element in the natural membrane based on their intracellular location, the correlation between their functional abundance and membrane permeability, and their potential distribution on the membrane surface.  (+info)

(3/48) The oligogenic properties of Bardet-Biedl syndrome.

Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS: OMIM 209900) is a rare developmental disorder that exhibits significant clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Although modeled initially as a purely recessive trait, recent data have unmasked an oligogenic mode of disease transmission, in which mutations at different BBS loci can interact genetically in some families to cause and/or modify the phenotype. Here, I will review and discuss recent advances in elucidating both genetic and cellular aspects of this phenotype and their potential application in understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic variability and oligogenic inheritance.  (+info)

(4/48) Clinical and genetic epidemiology of Bardet-Biedl syndrome in Newfoundland: a 22-year prospective, population-based, cohort study.

Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) and Laurence-Moon syndrome (LMS) have a similar phenotype, which includes retinal dystrophy, obesity, and hypogenitalism. They are differentiated by the presence of spasticity and the absence of polydactyly in LMS. The aims of this study were to describe the epidemiology of BBS and LMS, further define the phenotype, and examine genotype-phenotype correlation. The study involved 46 patients (26 males, 20 females) from 26 families, with a median age of 44 years (range 1-68 years). Assessments were performed in 1986, 1993, and 2001 and included neurological assessments, anthropometric measurements, and clinical photographs to assess dysmorphic features. The phenotype was highly variable within and between families. Impaired co-ordination and ataxia occurred in 86% (18/21). Thirty percent (14/46) met criteria for psychiatric illness; other medical problems included cholecystectomy in 37% (17/46) and asthma in 28% (13/46). Dysmorphic features included brachycephaly, large ears, and short, narrow palpebral fissures. There was no apparent correlation of clinical or dysmorphic features with genotype. Two patients were diagnosed clinically as LMS but both had mutations in a BBS gene. The features in this population do not support the notion that BBS and LMS are distinct. The lack of a genotype-phenotype correlation implies that BBS proteins interact and are necessary for the development of many organs.  (+info)

(5/48) MKKS/BBS6, a divergent chaperonin-like protein linked to the obesity disorder Bardet-Biedl syndrome, is a novel centrosomal component required for cytokinesis.

Chaperonins are multisubunit, cylinder-shaped molecular chaperones involved in folding newly synthesized polypeptides. Here we show that MKKS/BBS6, one of several proteins associated with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS), is a Group II chaperonin-like protein that has evolved recently in animals from a subunit of the eukaryotic chaperonin CCT/TRiC, and diverged rapidly to acquire distinct functions. Unlike other chaperonins, cytosolic BBS6 does not oligomerize, and the majority of BBS6 resides within the pericentriolar material (PCM), a proteinaceous tube surrounding centrioles. During interphase, BBS6 is confined to the lateral surfaces of the PCM but during mitosis it relocalizes throughout the PCM and is found at the intercellular bridge. Its predicted substrate-binding apical domain is sufficient for centrosomal association, and several patient-derived mutations in this domain cause mislocalization of BBS6. Consistent with an important centrosomal function, silencing of the BBS6 transcript by RNA interference in different cell types leads to multinucleate and multicentrosomal cells with cytokinesis defects. The restricted tissue distribution of BBS6 further suggests that it may play important roles in ciliated epithelial tissues, which is consistent with the probable functions of BBS proteins in basal bodies (modified centrioles) and cilia. Our findings provide the first insight into the nature and cellular function of BBS6, and shed light on the potential causes of several ailments, including obesity, retinal degeneration, kidney dysfunction and congenital heart disease.  (+info)

(6/48) Testing for triallelism: analysis of six BBS genes in a Bardet-Biedl syndrome family cohort.

The phenotype of Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is defined by the association of retinitis pigmentosa, obesity, polydactyly, hypogenitalism, renal disease and cognitive impairement. The significant genetic heterogeneity of this condition is supported by the identification, to date, of eight genes (BBS1-8) implied with cilia assembly or function. Triallelic inheritance has recently been suggested on the basis of the identification of three mutated alleles in two different genes for the same patient. In a cohort of 27 families, six BBS genes (namely BBS1, BBS2, BBS4, BBS6, BBS7 and BBS8) have been studied. Mutations were identified in 14 families. Two mutations within the same gene have been identified in seven families. BBS1 is most frequently implied with the common M390R substitution at the homozygous state (n=2), or associated with another mutation at BBS1 (n=3). Compound heterozygous mutations have been found in BBS2 (one family) and BBS6 (one family). In seven other families, only one heterozygous mutation has been identified (once in BBS1, twice for BBS2 and three times in BBS6). Although our study did not reveal any families with bona fide mutations in two BBS genes, consistent with a triallelic hypothesis, we have found an excess of heterozygous single mutations. This study underlines the genetic heterogeneity of the BBS and the involvement of possibly unidentified genes.  (+info)

(7/48) Pitfalls of homozygosity mapping: an extended consanguineous Bardet-Biedl syndrome family with two mutant genes (BBS2, BBS10), three mutations, but no triallelism.

The extensive genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is documented by the identification, by classical linkage analysis complemented recently by comparative genomic approaches, of nine genes (BBS1-9) that account cumulatively for about 50% of patients. The BBS genes appear implicated in cilia and basal body assembly or function. In order to find new BBS genes, we performed SNP homozygosity mapping analysis in an extended consanguineous family living in a small Lebanese village. This uncovered an unexpectedly complex pattern of mutations, and led us to identify a novel BBS gene (BBS10). In one sibship of the pedigree, a BBS2 homozygous mutation was identified, while in three other sibships, a homozygous missense mutation was identified in a gene encoding a vertebrate-specific chaperonine-like protein (BBS10). The single patient in the last sibship was a compound heterozygote for the above BBS10 mutation and another one in the same gene. Although triallelism (three deleterious alleles in the same patient) has been described in some BBS families, we have to date no evidence that this is the case in the present family. The analysis of this family challenged linkage analysis based on the expectation of a single locus and mutation. The very high informativeness of SNP arrays was instrumental in elucidating this case, which illustrates possible pitfalls of homozygosity mapping in extended families, and that can be explained by the rather high prevalence of heterozygous carriers of BBS mutations (estimated at one in 50 in Europeans).  (+info)

(8/48) Bardet-Biedl syndrome gene variants are associated with both childhood and adult common obesity in French Caucasians.

Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a rare developmental disorder with the cardinal features of abdominal obesity, retinopathy, polydactyly, cognitive impairment, renal and cardiac anomalies, hypertension, and diabetes. BBS is genetically heterogeneous, with nine genes identified to date and evidence for additional loci. In this study, we performed mutation analysis of the coding and conserved regions of BBS1, BBS2, BBS4, and BBS6 in 48 French Caucasian individuals. Among the 36 variants identified, 12 were selected and genotyped in 1,943 French-Caucasian case subjects and 1,299 French-Caucasian nonobese nondiabetic control subjects. Variants in BBS2, BBS4, and BBS6 showed evidence of association with common obesity in an age-dependent manner, the BBS2 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) being associated with common adult obesity (P = 0.0005) and the BBS4 and BBS6 SNPs being associated with common early-onset childhood obesity (P = 0.0003) and common adult morbid obesity (0.0003 < P < 0.007). The association of the BBS4 rs7178130 variant was found to be supported by transmission disequilibrium testing (P = 0.006). The BBS6 variants also showed nominal evidence of association with quantitative components of the metabolic syndrome (e.g., dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia), a complication previously described in BBS patients. In summary, our preliminary data suggest that variations at BBS genes are associated with risk of common obesity.  (+info)